POH Transcripts - 1849

< Go back to the previous page

Sidmouth. January, 1849.

San Joachim, not far from the port of San Francisco.  No sooner does a ship touch there than the sailors desert, and run away to the gold regions.  All the servants have left their masters, clerks, their employers, and soldiers the garrisons.  With a spade and a basin they wash the gravel, and collect gold worth from five to ten pounds each person a day.  Everything is neglected for gold, and the necessaries of life are getting very scarce.

The papers contain an affecting letter from Abd-el-Kader, the captive Arab chief, to Louis Napoleon, reminding him of the promise made by the late government, of suffering him to retire to Syria, and urging him to fulfil the pledge.

Napoleon Bonaparte, son of Jerome, sometime king of Westphalia, is appointed by Louis, his cousin, as Ambassador to England.

It is said that the French government have made overtures to the Grand Duke Michael of Russia, brother of the Emperor, for the hand of his only daughter for Louis Napoleon.  I should think that Louis Napoleon won’t catch her.  When her mother, the Grand Duchess Helène, was at Sidmouth in 1830, I remember two little girls, about five years old.  This is one.  The other died.

The Emperor of Russia has refused to see an ambassador from the Queen of Spain, and will not acknowledge her right to the throne of that country.

Wednesday. Jan.3rd. 1849.__Cold north-easter – very cold.  Called on Mr. J.M. Hutchinson, my seventy-seventh cousin.  He has been laid up with the lumbago – quite a family ailment.  Was introduced to his wife, and to Miss Thornborough, her sister.  They complain that Devonshire is quite as cold as Lancashire.

Put a second blister on my knee this evening.

Sunday. Jan.7.__ Could not go to church.  Finished reading “Scattered Jems; or Weekly Meditations By a Lady.”  This Lady is Mrs. Fellowes, wife of the Vicar of the adjoining parish of Sidbury.  “Sweet are the uses of adversity,” says Shakespeare.  This volume is the fruit of adversity.  The Fellowes were once is some affluence; but reckless living on the one hand, and the depreciation of West Indian property, owing to the emancipation of the slaves, and recently the extraordinary determination of the Whigs not to do anything to rescue the West India planters from destruction, though they encourage slave grown sugar from Cuba and other places – these things suddenly brought an amiable family to great straits.  When it was proposed to publish this book by subscription, people liberally came forward, many taking six or eight copies and paying for them, but only actually receiving one, a generous ruse to favour the author.  Mrs. F. put £100 in her pocket by this book.  Thus pleased at her success, she has since brought out another; but her friends were tired of paying more than once for six or eight copies and only taking one, so that the second has not gone off as the first did.  Many of the copies still hang on hand; and I rarely see her, but she asks my advice as how she can get a sale for them.

Monday. January 8.__The Times newspaper of the 5th Instant in speaking of the newly discovered gold field in California, says that it has sent the Yankees mad, and that they are all packing off to the new Dorado.  It begins its observations thus:- “The race from New York to California has begun. Never was there such sport – fifty thousand men running, neck or nothing, twenty thousand miles, by sea and by land.  There they go, sailing, steaming, a-sea, a-foot, and by rail, over oceans and continents, isthmuses deserts, and mountains, round capes and archipelagos, and every other geographical conception.  St. Legers and Derbys, steeple-chases, hurdle races, sculling mathes, and even balloon races, are child’s play to this.”  It seems, in sober earnest that an immense number of ships are fitting out to depart for California.  But England is not exempt from the mania, for it seems that several ships are unfurling their sails at London and Liverpool to steer to the new Dorado.  It is reported that one person picked up a lump of gold weighting thirteen pounds!

Wednesday. Jan.10.__Finished reading an interesting Article in the Edinburgh Review of October 1848 entitled “Ethnology, or the Science of Races.”  It takes a comprehensive survey of the numerous races of mankind scattered over the face of the globe, in commenting principally on some physiological works by Dr. Pritchard.  It shows with a great degree of satisfaction that all the marked differences in feature, colour, craniological conformation, phrenological and even anatomical structure, which we observe in all the races which have have been described by travellers, are no more than time, climate, and diet will produce: and consequently that the theory of origin from a single pair, is not shaken by this wide diversity – a theory which some philosophers have adopted with difficulty.  It also shows that amid the immense diversity of languages and dialects spoken by all these races, a cautious study into their radical structure and their glottological peculiarities, conducts to the conclusion that there was but one beginning of speech.  How this accords with the Mosaic account of the dispersion of Babel, may remain for consideration.  But there is a passage at the end of the article which I would wish to quote.  “But lastly,” it says, “it has been argued that, admitting the possibility of all which we have urged, the lapse of time necessary to bring about such changes as those required in any hypothesis of the single origin of the human races, is far greater than the received chronology admits; the evidence of the extreme diversity of races being at least coeval with the earliest records.  An objection founded upon the authenticity of the Mosaic chronology comes with an ill grace from those who refuse their assent to the Mosaic account of the origin of the human race from a single pair; and in the present state of critical inquiry, it scarcely needs a serious refutation.  For there is no more reason to suppose that the book of Genesis was intended to give us an exact chronology, than that it was designed to teach us geology or astronomy.  All writers who have entered upon the investigation of primeval history, have felt a difficulty in reconciling the proofs of the existence of powerful empires and high grades of civilization, with the ordinary chronology founded upon the Mosaic records; while the fragmentary character of these records, depriving them of all claim to be regarded even as affording a continuous genealogy, has been increasingly felt and acknowledged by unprejudiced biblical critics.  The whole teaching of modern geological inquiry, moreover, is to lengthen the period which has elapsed since the commencement of the recent epoch; so that without carrying the origin of man one step further back in geological time, we are quite free to assign any moderate number of thousands of years that we may think necessary, for the diffusion of the race, and for the origination of its varieties.”

Now, it is true that the records in the Bible are at times of a “fragmentary” character, and the Bible was not written to teach us chronology, geology, or astronomy with the minuteness of modern scientific treatises;  but from Adam to Christ the genealogies are given with an unbroken course of regularity, such as in this part of the subject, at least, the idea of a “fragmentary” compilation can with less positiveness be allowed.  If this be so, can we dispute the usual chronolical period as given by Ussher and others, notwithstanding the great lapse of time which seems to have been required, in order to produce so many varieties from a single pair?  All that part of the description of the creation which pertains to the miraculous course of events antecedent to Adam, is certainly “fragmentary.” The words are:- “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”  There is nothing to tell us when this “beginning” was.  Geology teaches us to infer that it was ages before the placing of Adam in the Garden of Eden; and there is nothing in the Sacred Volume opposed to geological investigation inference.  I have remarked on this in my comments on the Hebrew word xx which I made on the 13th of last June.  But I had not been so satisfied that since the epoch of Adam the narrative had been so fragmentary.  It was on this assertion in the passage quoted that I wished a little to dwell.

Thursday. Jan.11.__Read a notice of Lord Hervey’s Memoirs of the Court and Times of George the Second.  And a profligate court and immoral times they were!

Friday. Jan.12.__Received from Mr. Nichols the proof sheet of my Dissertation on Moridunum to look over.  Looked it over – and made a few corrections, and sent it back to London to him.  It comes out next month.

Read an article entitled “Roger Williams” in a periodical called “The Christian Reformer” lent me by a friend; as in this article, which refers to the founder of the State of Rhode Island in North America, there is an incidental mention of his contemporary of Mrs. Ann Hutchinson, my ancestress.  She is referred to twice.  Once at page 581 Vol.IV, it says:- “The church at Boston was at the time of Roger Williams’s arrival under the care of Mr. Wilson.  With many excellencies of character he was [Mr. Williams was], though sincere, narrow-minded, as his conduct towards Mrs. Hutchinson shewed. “ And secondly, at page 588 it observes:- “One of the first victims of persecution to whom Rhode Island proved an asylum, was the unfortunate but heroic Mrs. Hutchinson, who, like Williams, was banished from Massachusetts for her religious opinions.”   Her husband William Hutchinson died at Rhode Island in 1642, and the year after she, and sixteen of the members of her family and servants, were massacred in Connecticut by the Indians.  This I have detailed in my “Memorials of the Hutchinson Family.”

Tuesday. Ja.16.__Heard from Mr. J.G. Nichols that he would send to the Marquis of Northampton a February No. of the Gentleman’s Magazine, if I will forward him a letter for the Marquis to go with it.

To-day my mother lost her purse with £7 in it.  She was in a great fluster and sent for the Sidmouth policeman to search.  It was finally discovered under some hay in the cat’s bed.  Rather suspicious.

The rage for California is as great as ever.

The papers mention that a discovery, more valuable than Californian gold, has been made in the Straits of Magellan, Cape Horn – to wit, coal.

A new importation from China has taken place, namely, 128 tons of copper ore.

Friday. Jan.19.1849.__Read Milton’s “Lycidas” in Sir Egerton Brydge’s Edition of the poems, for which I gave 25 shillings of one of Mr. Hamilton’s clerks in 1835 when we were engineering in Staffordshire.  He gave 30 shillings, and soon valuing money more than books, offered the whole six volumes to me.

“Lycidas” is unreservedly abused by Dr. Johnson – why I do not see, for there is a something to me very pleasing in it.  All the other editors, I believe, and Sir Egerton the last, give it a due and deserved amount of commendation.  But Johnson seems to have arranged his verdict before the trial, by a species of Devonshire Lydford Law, where they used to hang a man first, and try him afterwards.  Johnson says there is no passion in this poem: but it appears to me that there is much more here than in most parts of “Paradise Lost,” where there is too much learning, and too much hard description, for passion.  I do not admire everything of Milton’s: but “Lycidas” is one of the poems that I the most prefer.

Saturday. Jan.20.__ Delightfully mild; but a sea fog came on so thick this afternoon,  that the church tower was not visible from Coburg Terrace.

The papers mention that there are already many cabals and plots hatching already in France against Louis Napoleon.  Latterly, however, (and luckily for him, as it diverts attention) the nation has become vociferous against the National Assembly, elected by the people only a few months ago.  The sovereign people urge them to dissolve, alleging that they were only elected to perform certain work, to wit, to settle the affairs of the country, and elect a president, and that now this work is done they are bound to break up the Chamber and return to their homes.  But since the sagacious people thought proper to allow their representatives 25 francs a day during the period of their duties, they seem in no wise inclined to vacate.  Hosts of petitions praying them to dissolve, have been poured in by their constituents, which petitions have hitherto been disregarded.  A pacific means won’t do, the people threaten force.  The French government has sent several steamers from Toulon to co-operate with other powers, to re-instate the Pope.

England holds on the even tenor of her way.  The agitator Richard Cobden has been exciting the Manchester people by inflamatory speeches, declaring that the taxation ought to be reduced ten millions, and that this could be done by reducing the army & navy.  He is one of the preachers of peace – “when there is no peace. “

Sunday. Jan.21.__Could not go to church.  The weather is now delightfully mild.  On the geraniums in the dining room we discovered a dark-coloured butterfly fluttering.  This for January!

Thursday. Jan.25.1849.__Sent off my “Memorials of the Hutchinson Family” to cousin John Hutchinson of Blurton Parsonage, near Trentham, Staffordshire, to let him look them over.

Friday. Jan.26.__Superb morning!  When we assembled in the breakfast room the thermometer stood at 64o!  This is, indeed, unusual in January, for the room at that hour had had no time to get warm, much above the external atmosphere.  Perhaps the sun shining on the room may have affected it.

Tuesday. Jan.30.__This day 201 years ago Charles the First was murdered.  Curious enough, I finished reading the Trials of the 29 Regicides to-day – a book recently lent me.  The number of those who signed the Death warrant, however, is much greater.  The Colonel John Hutchinson, the thirteenth name on the Death Warrant, obtained the favour of the Act of oblivion, and escaped a trial at this time, through the intercession of powerful friends: but he suffered imprisonment at a subsequent period in Sandown Castle.  See his wife’s History.

Wed. Jan.31.__Mr. Nichols sent me down a copy of the Gentleman’s Magazine for February containing my Dissertation on the Site of Moridunum.


See Next Vol. of Diary


Jan 25 1849-June 2 1850

Thursday. Jan.25.1849.__Sent off my “Memorials of the Hutchinson Family” to cousin John Hutchinson of Blurton Parsonage, near Trentham, Staffordshire, to let him look them over.

Friday. Jan.26.__Superb morning!  When we assembled in the breakfast room the thermometer stood at 64o!  This is, indeed, unusual in January, for the room at that hour had had no time to get warm, much above the external atmosphere.  Perhaps the sun shining on the room may have affected it.

Tuesday. Jan.30.__This day 201 years ago Charles the First was murdered.  Curious enough, I finished reading the Trials of the 29 Regicides to-day – a book recently lent me.  The number of those who signed the Death warrant, however, is much greater.  The Colonel John Hutchinson, the thirteenth name on the Death Warrant, obtained the favour of the Act of oblivion, and escaped a trial at this time, through the intercession of powerful friends: but he suffered imprisonment at a subsequent period in Sandown Castle.  See his wife’s History.

Wed. Jan.31.__Mr. Nichols sent me down a copy of the Gentleman’s Magazine for February containing my Dissertation on the Site of Moridunum.


See Next Vol. of Diary




Sidmouth, Devon. Feb. 1849.

Thursday. Feb.1.1849.__Parliament meets to-day.  I suspect there will be plenty of war during some weeks.  A deficient revenue, with a high degree of taxation, constitute a comprehensive question – a question that cannot be disposed of without reference to a multitude of topics foreign as well as topics domestic.

In France, matters assume a very threatening aspect.  The republican mania is merging into the monarchic.

In Rome, the state of affairs is wavering.  The Pope is still at Gaeta, and the King and Queen of Naples have devoted their time so much to him that the Neapolitans have remonstrated.

Spain is in a most debased condition.  It is hard to say which is the most abandoned in morals, Christina, or her fat daughter, the Queen.  A recent discovery has revealed, that the latter has been in the habit of disguising herself after dark, and stealing out of the palace for improper purposes!

In the United States of America General Taylor has been elected the new President.

The rage for the gold regions still goes on.  These regions however, are now described as being full of desperadoes and cut-throats.  No man’s life is worth an hour’s purchase, who is thought to have collected any gold.  In the midst of all this they are starving for want of bread.  A hundred and fifty young men from the States, are about to proceed thither in a body, each armed with a rifle and six-barrel pistol!

Friday. Feb.2.1849.__I have been watching the progress of the cholera for some weeks, intending to make a memorandum as soon as the number of cases should attains 10.000, towards which it has been tending.  By the Times newspaper of the 31st ultimo, the following return appears:-

Number of cases in Great Britain.................................10.195

Deaths .........................................................................    4.512

Recoveries ..................................................................     2.572

Under treatment, or result not known ..........................   3.054


On turning back the pages of my diary, I see that the cholera made its appearance in this country in the beginning of last October; so that we have had above 10.000 cases in four months.  It is probable that on the approach of spring the disease may manifest itself even more strongly.

Saturday. Feb.3.__The papers mention that a few days ago a ship arrived at Liverpool from the Pacific Ocean bringing, as part of her freight, 14.000 dollars’ worth of Californian gold.  This is, I believe, the first gold from California, that has been brought to England.  It is said that the most absurd prices are asked, and obtained, in California, for articles of clothing, and other common necessaries of life – as £4 for a shirt.


[page  missing]


Lord’s Prayer was printed in England, was by Wynkyn de Worde in 1483: and that the first edition of the Liturgy was in 1549.

Thursday. Feb.8. – 1848 – Read the Review on Gents. Mag. of Lord Braybrooke’s new edition of Samuel Pepys’ Diary, which is accompanied by several extracts.  Methinks that Pepys convicts himself out of his own mouth of being guilty of the most infamous acts of bribery in the way he receives money and presents for dispensing his patronage towards those who were seeking office or place at Court or with the government.  No honourable man could have done as he did, however much some may try to excuse him on the score of such practices having been the custom of that corrupt period.  The Gentleman’s Magazine has several reviews this month.

In the evening read for a couple of hours in Blackstone’s Commentaries.  Blackstone’s language and style are very smooth, easy, and agreeable to read.  The phraseology is here and there somewhat obsolete, but this does not destroy the pleasantness of the style.  By the bye, I have a great wish to see (and to possess, let me add) the new Commentaries on the Laws of England, and on Blackstone, bringing down the observations to the present time.  A barrister by the name of Stephens published such a work some three years ago, which has been highly approved of; and I see that it has lately gone into a second edition.

Friday. Feb.9.1849.__Hemmed three kitchen cloths for my mother and marked them.  After which piece of needle-work I walked for a quarter of an hour in the Blackmore Fields.  I can’t make out what my knee means; it seems to get no better, and yet I cannot say that it gets worse.  I begin to think that change of air to a more bracing and invigorating atmosphere would be my best physician.  The damp and mild climate of Sidmouth always pulls me down so much, that I cannot combat with my ailments here.

Sunday. Feb.11.__A frosty night, but a superb day; the sky being cloudless and the sun delightful.  As I was taking a turn in the garden soon after noon, a variegated butterfly flew over my head.

Monday. Feb.12.__In Woolmer’s Exeter Gazette of Saturday it mentions that pieces of solid gold have been found in California, some weighing 16 pounds, and one as much as 25 pounds weight!  The gold district is found to extend 100 in width, by some 800 in length.  It is supposed that it will yield £100.000.000 a year; and many persons in England are fearful that this influx of gold may have a serious effect on money and the funds.

We learn from France that the government has a deficiency of 700.000.000 of francs.  So the world wags.

Tuesday. Feb.13.__This evening a sedate party celebrated their orgies under our roof, to wit, Miss Rose, of the discreet age of 85; Miss Cook, of a certain age;  Miss Jouenne, of an uncertain age; Mrs. Theophilus Jenkins, a buxome widow.

Wednesday. Feb.14.__ Valentine’s Day!  Sent no valentine whatever.  Goodness knows how many years it is since I omitted such a duty to the ladies.

Friday. Feb.16.__Sent the Second  Fytte of Ye “Merrie Geste of Exancester” to the Editor of Woolmer’s Gazette.

Saturday. Feb.17.

Monday. Feb.19.__Started to pay a visit to the Joneses of Uffculme.  Left at half past 8 A.M. and got to Exeter soon after eleven.  Went to the bank for some money, and was quite surprised (but not much chagrined) at being told that I had £6 more lying there than I was aware of.  Drew out £5.  .   for present expenses.

Called at Woolmer’s Gazette office and had a chat with the Editor.  He told me that he intended to print the Second Fytte of “Ye Merrie Geste of Exancester” next Saturday, and a notice of my Article on Moridunum in the current number of the Gentleman’s Magazine.  He also said, in reference to my Essay on the present state of the Literature of the day, printed two or three months ago in Woolmer’s Gazette, that the Editors of the Western Miscellany, a new periodical, wish to reprint it in that periodical - and would I have any objection?  I said No; but on the contrary, felt complimented at the intention.  This West of England Western Miscellany is a new publication, but which I have not seen.

Missed the 2¾ P.M. train, so I took the 5½ one.  Got safe to Uffculme, having suffered little in my knee from the exertion.

Tuesday. Feb.20.__ Shrove Tuesday, and pancakes for dinner!  What is the origin of pancakes on Shrove Tuesday?  I am not aware.

Wednesday. Feb.21.__Ash Wednesday, and salt fish!

Made a new will; and the Revd. Francis Jones, M.A., and Mr. Caines, surgeon, witnessed my signature.

Friday. Feb.23.__ Finished skimming through Dr. Oliver’s “History of Exeter,” 1821; and his “Historic Collections relating to the Monasteries of Devon,” 1821.  Oliver abuses his predecessors.  He speaks of the time-honoured old Izacke as “the careless Izacke.” (Hist. 140.)  At p.32 he says:- “But Izacke disgraced


Uffculme. Feb. 1849.

the name of an historian.” “Godwin, who is rather an elegant writer than a faithful historian.” (D: p.37.) “Jenkins, in what he is pleased to call his ‘History of the City of Exeter.’”  I question whether the “History” of Oliver is so supremely perfect as to warrant him using such language of his predecessors.  Dr. Oliver is a Roman Catholic!

Wednesday. Feb.28.__Received from home last Saturday’s Woolmer’s Exeter and Plymouth Gazette.  I perceive that the Second Fytte of “Ye Merrie Geste of Exancester” is therein printed.  There is also a notice of my Article on Moridunum in the Gentleman’s Magazine.

Read and made some extracts from Caesar’s Commentaries, Liber V, sections 8. and 21.

Friday. March 2. 1849.__My brother sent me from Sidmouth, the following extracts from the Parish Register at Alford, Lincolnshire.

“1623.  In matrimonia conjuncti Augustinus Storre et Susannah Huchinson.  Novemb. 21.”  (See my visit to Lincolnshire.)

“1630.  Susanna, filia Guglielmi Hutchinson, sepult. Septemb. 8.”

“1630.  Elizabetha, filia Guglielmi Huchinson, sep. eodem die, Oct.4.”

“1610, or 6, or 8. Johannes Huchinson et Elizabeth Woodthorpe desponsat.  Oct.1.”

“1633.  Johannes, filius Johannis Huchinson, sepult. Feb.10.”

As we have been hitherto unable to carry back our pedigree

Uffculme. March. 1849.

beyond William Hutchinson, anno 1633, I have long had the desire of making a tour into Lincolnshire, to search Parish Registers, monuments, and histories, in order to try and gain some earlier information respecting the family.  The above extracts seems to be all detached and disconnected, and not continuous.  The name of Hutchinson is often spelt without the t; but this is immaterial.  The Guglielmus Hutchinson there mentioned, under the date 1630, is likely to have been the Willliam Hutchinson who, with his wife Ann, emigrated to Boston in North America, in 1633.  The other Hutchinsons were probably his near relations.

Sunday. March 4.__Read several of the Homilies, and several of the Letters of the Martyrs, as originally collected by Miles Coverdale.

Monday. Mar.6.__By the “Spectator” newspaper of Saturday, it appears that our taxes of all sorts amount to £77.000.000.  As thus:-

Imperial..........................................     £54.000.000

Cost of collection............................        7.000.000

Cost of our poor ...............................          8.000.000

County rates ....................................        1.000.000

Highway rates ..................................       1.000.000

Religion ...........................................        6.000.000


Some additions, which might be made, would raise the amount to £80.000.000.  In France £72.000.000 covers everything.

Wednesday. March 7. 1849.__Read in Latin the Life of Vespasian.  Mr. & Mrs. Caines, the surgeon and his wife, spent the evening with us.  Received the third number of “The Western Miscellany” in which there is a review of my article on Moridunum in the Gents. Mag.  It is temperately written, and pays due respect to the arguments and the evidence I have brought forward.

Friday. March 9. 1849.__To-day we were surprised by an adverse change of weather.  It was fine during the morning, but the wind veered round to the north-east, and about three o’clock in the afternoon it came on to snow somewhat thickly.  The ground was soon covered several inches deep.  This is the first snow that we have had this winter in the south part of Devonshire that has at all remained on the ground.

Saturday. March 10.__The weather still black and cold, but the snow slowly thawing.

Turned over Gibbon’s Decline and Fall for an hour or two.  Gibbon’s language and style are smooth, easy, and good.

Monday. Mar.12.__The morning fine and the air quite balmy.  Made my first out-of-door sketch this year.  Walked down to the Mill, where I seated myself on a grass slope by the river under some poplar trees, and made a coloured drawing, looking down the Culme to the bridge.  Came back with a sore throat.  So much for sitting upon damp grass, after being having been shut up invalided all the winter.

Wednesday. March 14. 1849.__Received last Saturday’s Woolmer’s paper from Sidmouth.  Amongst the reviews of new books, there is a notice of the March Nr. of “The Western Miscellany,” and an allusion to my Moridunum.  In another part of the paper there is the Report on the Lecture on the subject of the British and Roman Roads and Stations in the west of England, delivered by the Revd. S. Rowe, of Crediton, at the Athenaeum, Bedford Circus, Exeter, on the 6th Instant.  Mr. Rowe takes occasion to deliberate upon my article on Moridunum in the “Gentleman’s Magazine”, and on the arguments I have brought forward.  But he inclines to think that Hembury Fort has a better claim to be considered as the site of Moridunum than High Peak Hill.  His reasons are not given in the report; and as I was not at the Lecture, I am ignorant of them.  As his conclusion is opposed to tradition, to antiquarian writers, and to etymology, I am at a loss to imagine on what he bases his argument.

Thursday. March 15.__Received from Mr. Harvey, the Bookseller of Sidmouth,  a letter in which was enclosed a proof sheet, beginning about page 64, of part of the new edition of the Road Book of Devon, being published by Besley, of South Street, Exeter.  He wished me to insert a few words relative to High Peak Hill and Moridunum.  This I did, and sent the proof sheet to Mr. Besley.

Friday. Mar.16.__Wombwell’s itinerant collection of animals came to Uffculme – a kind of sight that had never before greeted this retired place.  The Uffculmites were stricken with extreme wonderment when the elephant walked into the market-place with a lady riding on his back, seated in a houda.  In the afternoon I went to see the collection with the Joneses and their children.

Monday. Mar.19.__Made a moletrap to catch a mole that ploughs up the grass, and dots it all over with almost mountains instead of mole-hills.  Some say that moles do more good than harm on an estate – that they eat the worms and grubs, and loose the earth beneficially about the roots of the plants.  Perhaps moles are amongst the innocent and useful, but much maligned of this earth.

Tuesday. Mar.20.__ Read an hour in the Letter of Gildas, a little volume, the title-page of which runs:- “Gildae, cui cognomen est Sapientis, De Excidis et Conquestu Britanniae, &c., 1568.  Londoni excudebat Joannes Dains.”  Some learned reader, but not of recent years, has gone through this volume, and made extensive erasures, notes, and alterations, as if the edition were faulty.  Whether this is so or not, I cannot say, as I have had no opportunity of comparing it with any other.

Wednesday. Mar. 21.__Received Woolmer’s paper from home.  There is a paragraph on “Uffculme” by me, which has awoke the Uffculmeites.  It reflects on their dirty roads, neglect of local duties, and public spirit.  There is nothing like a paragraph in a newspaper to make people look about.

Finished reading the Godstow Chronicle,  as published by Hearne, in a volume, together with a Life of William Roper, Sir T. Moore, Letters, &c., 1716.  This Chronicon Godstoviarum is a curious performance.  It begins with the creation (though the course of the first three days is lost) and comes down to the reign of Henry 6.  It relates many wonderful things about the earlier ages of the world, for which we might look in vain in the records of Moses.

Sunday. March 24.1849.__Read some of the Homilies, and part of Bishop Pearson’s “Exposition of the Creed” – the article devoted to the consideration of the words “The resurrection of the Body.”  He agrees on the three several heads, First, that the resurrection of the actual body is not impossible;  Secondly, that it is, on general considerations, highly probable; and Thirdly, that, on Christian principles, it is infallibly certain.  He observes that there is nothing preposterous in the idea that, if man was once but dust, he should return to dust again; and that if this dust was embodied into the breathing form of a living being, such as we all are, that it could be easily reformed into a similar being to meet the great event of the final resurrection.  We are first dust – then living beings – then again dust – and lastly are to be a second time alive in our proper bodies as before.  In a physiological point of view, he would have made all this even more clear, more simple, and more conclusive than perhaps he has done, if he had been so profound a chemist as Liebig.  Liebig shews us of what we are made, and how little we differ in composition from a hayrick, a cart-load of earth, or a dung-hill.  He explains by what simple laws a crust of bread, an apple, a pound of beef, or a turnip, may be converted into living flesh & blood; and gives us chemical reasons why a man should die at a certain period; and that when buried, how little his chemical constituents differ from the soil in which he is laid.  If this is the case, I must confess that even those who might be sceptical on Christian principles, could find little difficulty on chemical considerations, in feeling assured that, the dust to which their bodies will be reduced after death can easily again be recompounded from that same dust into living bodies able to stand up before the Judgment Seat.  The contemplation of the subject is an eminently satisfactory one.  Is it not more consistent that they will be more spiritual, as the Angels are?

Wednesday. Mar.28.1849.__Finished reading Edmund Burke’s Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful.  It strikes me strongly that this Essay was mainly suggested by reading Locke’s Essay on the Understanding.  There are traces of it throughout.  Burke’s definition of the Sublime I do not exactly coincide with.  He makes it almost synonimous with Terror, and that it is a painful emotion.  “Whatever,” he says, Part I, Section VII., “is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime.”  My notion of the sublime rather embodies the ideas of grandeur combined with feelings of rapture and wonder and stupendousness and exaltation, and poetic admiration.  I do not see that pain and terror and uneasiness constitute a part of sublimity.  Perhaps, however, the word sublime, in Burke’s day had a different signification somewhat different from what it has now, for words are continually changing their meaning, as a reference to all old books will shew.

Uffculme.  Heightley. 1849.

Sunday. April 1.__Read one or two Homilies.  I doubt whether these Homilies would do to read to a congregation assembled in a church in the present day.  The doctrine may be faultless, and the advice excellent; but the style and language are such as to render some of them, at least, scarcely calculated to edify as they should do.

Thursday. April 5.__Left Uffculme, and travelled to Exeter from the Tiverton Junction by rail, - the Revd. Francis Jones with me.  My cousin, Mary Roberton, met me in Exeter, and took me in the carriage to Heightley Cottage, near Chudleigh.  Besides my aunt, Mrs. Cocks, found my aunt, Mrs. Stairs, at Heightley, and her daughter, Ann.

Monday. Ap.9.__Walked to the Black Rock, where I sat down and for half an hour enjoyed the beautiful view.  Then went on to the cliff, overlooking the Quarry.  Had a hammer with me, and remained an hour knocking out geological specimens containing organic remains, being madrapores and mollusca of different species.  These are nearly the earliest traces of animal life in a geological sense, occurring in the oldest rock, and nearest to the series of igneous origin, this limestone being designated the Transition Primitive.

Heightley Cottage, near Chudleigh.  April 1849.

Tuesday, Ap.10. 1849__Finished Justus Leibig’s Chemical Letters.  Read them when I was here last year.

Wednesday. Ap.11.__Walked down the Newton Road, and knocked out of the high bank, near the Weir, some specimens of that rock here called “Dunstone.”  It appears to belong to the upper members of the slate formation.  It occurs in strata, from the fraction of an inch thick, to the thickness of a foot or two.  It looks at an angle of about 45 degrees, and comes out in romboids.  The colour is grey or brown, and its texture granular.  – Carboniferous shale.

Thursday. April 12.__Went to Chudleigh Rock, and took shelter in the mouth of the cavern from a shower of rain.  Whilst there, I found a mass of stalagmite out of which I knocked a bone resembling a rib.  Some twenty years ago Dr. Buckland searched this cavern, and found many antediluvian and Pre-Adamite osseous remains.

Friday. April 13.__Went to the field in which Mrs. Hill’s house stands, near the old Hennock road, and made a drawing of Chudleigh Rock, Heightley Cottage, &c.

Heightley, April. 1849.

Sunday. April 15.__In the afternoon took a walk through the trees below the Black Rock to the Quarry – then climed up and returned over the top of the Black Rock.

Wednesday. April 18.__January did not produce more severe weather.  All the month it has been unusually cold, but the succession of hail and snow storms to-day exceeded everything I ever remember.

Thursday. April 19.__To-day, if possible, is worse than yesterday!

Friday. April 20.__Finished reading Justus Liebig’s “Chemistry in its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology,  Edited by Lyon Playfair.  3rd Edition, 1843.”

This work is much more scientific and abstruse than the “Letters” of Liebig  - indeed, without the aid of a laboratory, it is scarcely possible to comprehend one half, or retain one quarter of what it contains.  I made memorandums of a few of the facts which it states, and which I jot down here.

Page 3. – the woody fibre of plants contains carbon, and the elements of water.

P.4.  – Nitrogen is an element of vegetable gluten and albumen, and it is the nourishing principle, which goes to make the muscular fibre, in those who eat it.  Seeds are rich in nitrogen, as peas, beans, &c.

P.11. – Hay contains, per 100 parts, 45.87 carbon, 5.76 hydrogen, 41.55 oxygen, and 6.82 ashes.

P.12. – Beet root contains 89 parts water, and the 10 others contain 40 p.cent. of carbon.

P.13. – The carbon, which goes to make the stalks and woody fibre of plants and trees, is derived, by them, not from the soil by the roots, but from the atmosphere by the leaves.

P.15. – The atmosphere contains about 1/1000th of its weight of carbonic acid.  The amount was probably greater in the earlier ages of the world, as the fossil remains of a luxuriant vegetation in the polar regions leads us to conclude.  Carbonic acid contains 72.35 carbon, and 27.65 oxygen.  Plants appropriate the hydrogen of the water which they suck up through their roots, and set free the oxygen – thus returning to the atmosphere the oxygen which it had lost by the respiration of animals, combustion, putrefaction, &c.

P.17. – Plants inspire carbon, by day, and give out oxygen; but the reverse is in some degree the case at night.  But animals inspire oxygen, and breathe out carbonic acid and water.

P.21. – Humus is decayed vegetable matter.  It is the same as woody fibre, but richer in carbon.

P.25. – Damp wood absorbs oxygen, and emits carbonic acid.  Hence the unhealthiness of wet, low, woody situations, damp floors, rotten rafters, and unventilated cellars.

P.25. – Oak wood contains about 49.432 carbon,  6.069 hydrogen, and 44.490 oxygen.

P.42. – All blue colour matters, capable of being rendered red by acids, and all red colouring substances, capable of being turned blue by alkalies, contain nitrogen.

P.43. – Plants derive their nitrogen from the ammonia of manures.  Ammonia contains hydrogen ......... and ...................nitrogen, and makes the muscle of animals that eat it.

P.46. – The softness of rainwater is owing to the presence of carbonate of ammonia.

P.55 and 190. – Sulphate of lime, or gypsum, spread on land, recently manured, or mixed with the manure, destroys the offensive smell by preventing the ammonia from flying off.  It is sometimes spread on the floors of stables. The ammonia combines with the sulphuric acid of the gypsum, and the carbonic acid with the lime, and the whole is retained profitably on the land.  But 10 parts of sulphuric acid, with 80 or 100 of water, are equal to 174        of gypsum, on land.

P.61. – Albumen, fibrin, and casein contain sulphur.  This is very apparent in the albumen of eggs.

P.86. – Glass made up of 70 parts of silica, and 30 of potash, is soluble in boiling water.  If the proportion of silica is greater, it is not so.

P.134. – The spreading of lime on arable land, acts favourably by setting free the alkalies, silicates, &c.  It is found that pipe-clay diffused in water, to which milk of lime is added, the mixture becomes thick:  and that after it has stood some months, it gelatinises if an acid is added to it.  Thus, the clay is broken up, and the alkalies are disengaged.

P.134. – The burning of clays acts advantageously by rendering them soluble in acids.

P.140. – Potatoe contains 75 per cent of water; 18 or 19 of starch, and 2 or 3 of fibre resembling starch.  The two remaining parts are sulphur and nitrogen = albumen.

P.155 and 169. – The art of the rotation of crops consists in alternating the potash plants, the silica plants, and the lime plants.  The former include the chenopodia, arrack, wormwood, beet, mangel-worzel, turnip, maize, potatoes, &c.  The silica are wheat, oats, rye, and barley.  And the lime plants are lichens, cactus, clover, beans, peas, and tobacco.  All of them require a supply of the phosphates, and the alkalies, but the potash plants require most alkalies.  In addition to the phosphates and alkalies, the wheat tribe cannot thrive without silica.  The lime plants exhaust the phosphates from the soil.

P.185. – 60 pounds weight of bones on an acre, supply enough of the phosphates for three crops, e.g. mangel-worzel, wheat & rye.

P.316. – Wine, on draught, may be kept from turning sour, by adding a little sulphurous acid.  This acid combines with the oxygen in the cask, or diffused in the wine, and prevents the formation of ascetic acid.

P.363. – Salts of oxide of copper act as poisons in the stomach.  The best antidote is sugar or honey.

Monday. April 23.__ Went to Chudleigh Rock to try and find some organic remains which might be imbedded in any of the strata -  but was not successful.  As I had found several specimens of madrapores and molluscs in the quarry opposite, I inferred that similar remains might be met with in the Rock.  From the appearance of the strata in the neighbourhood, I had concluded that the upper beds held out the best chances of success; but after chipping fragments high and low with a hammer during the whole afternoon over the Cavern, near the “Battlements,” and on many parts of the face of the Rock, I was disappointed in detecting any decided fossil.  The strata of the Rock are not the highest strata.


Heightley. April 1849.

Wednesday. April 25.__Finished reading Bakewell’s “Introduction to Geology.”  Mean to skim it again.

Took candles and went into the Cavern in Chudleigh Rock.  By pacing, I found that the length of the passage to the interior chamber to be about 150 feet.  The ramifications tending towards the left hand, extend about the same distance.  When I went into this cavern as a boy, the passage inwards was scarcely eighteen inches high, so that I crawled on my hands and knees:  a few years ago, however, the floor of this passage, which was a bed of stalagmite, the accumulation of centuries probably, was dug through and cleared away, so that one can now enter nearly upright.  In this stalagmite, or “crust,”  a quantity of fossilized bones have been found.  I remember years ago having procured some there, especially the crown of a bear’s double tooth.  To-day I found part of a large bone of stony texture, nearly half an inch thick from the surface to the cavity of the marrow.  At the ends there are the marks of teeth, as if it had been gnawed by some wild beast, a former inhabitant of the cavern.  To-day I was alone; and after a solitary half hour, my candles were getting low, so I returned once more to daylight.

Thursday. April 26.__The finest day we have had a long time.  Went into the Cavern this afternoon with my cousin Ann Stairs.  We made no particular discoveries.  The spaniel dog that accompanied us got so frightened when we plunged into the obscurity, that no caresses which we paid him could stop his whining and trepidation.   Neither could we persuade him to remain there.  He made his escape and waited for us outside until we returned.

Saturday. April 28.__Read a copy of my grandmother Lady Parker’s will – a thing I had never done before.  A question had arisen as to whether the £10.000 which she bequeathed her children, independently of her husband, was equally tied up in the hands of the trustees.  It is so.

Monday. April 30.__Went to measure the dimensions of the ancient Hill Fortress in Ugbrook Park.  Found the gates shut – but I scaled the park palings.  Some evil-disposed persons have recently fired at and killed several of the deer; and the public, in consequence, have been excluded.  The camp is an elipse, approaching to a circle.  I made the north and south diameter 650 feet:  and the east and west diameter 770 feet.  Then sat down in the foss for an hour, and coloured a sketch.

Heightley. May 1849.

Tuesday.  May 1. 1849. __Splendid day!  The first genial day we have had.

Finished with Bakewell’s Introduction to Geology.  This work is entirely superceded by others of more recent date:  but it is noted as being one of the first books in which geology was rationally and systematically treated.

Wednesday. May 2.__Went to the caverns at the west end of Chudleigh Rock with hammer and chisle, and was engaged for nearly two hours in getting off a mass of stalactite out of which I mean to turn a box.

Thursday. May 3.__Heard the Cookoo for the first time this year.

Friday. May 4.__Saw the first swallow this year.  The weather is now fine; but the old Roman proverb says:-“Una hirundo non facit ver.”  Went with my Aunt  Cocks and my cousin Mary Roberton to Newton Abbot to shop.

Saturday. May 5.__ Una hirundo non facit ver  - true enough.  The weather to-day is chilly, and we have again resorted to fires.

Monday. May 7.__Went with my cousin Ann Stairs on the top of Chudleigh Rock to enjoy the view.

Tuesday. May 8.__Went with her to look at the quarry, where we witnessed an explosion of the rock.

Sidmouth. May 1849.

Saturday. May 19. 1849.__Went to Sidbury and called on old Mrs. Hunt, of Court Hall, and then on Dorset Fellowes, at his father’s, the Vicarage.  Owing to the blow I gave my knee last autumn, I was afraid to walk so far; so I hired a “Delly,” or “Delhi”, of Wellington Smith.  This little chaise on four wheels, and drawn by hand, or by a donkey, has a name whereof I would gladly learn the meaning and derivation.

Sunday. May 20.__Miserable weather again!

Monday. May 21.__Beautiful weather!  Called on Mr. Creighton,  and on Captain Dolphin.  In Creighton the ei is sounded like the ei in eight, weight, freight.  The advocates of phonetic spelling would found an argument upon these doubtful words.

Called with Bingham on Mr. Lyde, solicitor to consult as to whether the £1000 can be raised for the Burnleys, without risk to ourselves.

Bad news from Canada.  The loyal party have burnt the provincial house of Parliament, and pelted the Governor, Lord Elgin, with rotten eggs!  When I was in America in 1837 and 1838, the rebellion, as it was called, broke out, fomented by the French party in Lower Canada.  But the loyal party assisted in putting them down; and the rebels had many of their houses burnt in the row.  Since then the two provinces have been thrown into one; and in the new House of Representatives the French party found themselves so strong, that they have introduced and carried through, a bill to indemnify those rebels for the loss of property they sustained in those years.  The money for this indemnification is to come out of taxes raised upon the whole population – upon the just, as well as upon the unjust.  At this the loyalists feel themselves much aggrieved.  They think it hard that they, who have been faithful to the Mother Country, should now be called upon to reward those who tried to rebel against her.  Certainly, here is now a premium held out to rebellion; and this principle is decidedly a bad one.  But the bill passed and only waited the Governor’s signature.  It was thought that he would not sign it without sending for instructions from Great Britain.  However, he did sign it; and the loyalists, having saved the Queen’s picture from the building, set fire to the House, and gave their addled eggs to his Excellency.

Tuesday. May 22.__At last, after much deliberation, and the endurance of much bullying from others, I have consented to assist, with Bingham, in raising £1000 for the Burnleys to emigrate to South Australia with.  The security they offered was good, with the exception of one weak point.  My sister, as a married woman, could in no way be bound, though her reversion is the main stay.  Her husband is bound during his life; and in case of his death, my sister pledges herself then to lose no time in getting a document made, by which she would bind herself in the required sum to Bingham and me.  In that case a second marriage could not invalidate such a bond.  The £1000 is borrowed of a stranger – the Burnleys, Bingham and me assist in making his security good – and my sister insures her life against my mother’s in the like amount.  If these things are carried through, the Burnleys wish to sail in a couple of months.  It is a pity that Bingham does not at once decide on raising some money and going out with them.  Twelve years his land has been neglected.

Wednesday. May 23.__Mr. George Radford, solicitor, lent me the great Map of the Town and Parish of Sidmouth, to copy on a reduced scale.  On again considering the matter, I begin to see that it is likely to be a more arduous undertaking than I had at first imagined.

Mr. Heineken spent the evening with me.  Shewed him an old tea-urn, which is a new one to us, my mother having got it out of Mr. Le Patourel, a gentleman of Guernsey extraction, but now of Sidbury Castle.  On returning home on the 10th Instant, and looking at the new acquisition, I was much struck with the contrivance on the top to let the steam off.  In its principle, it is precisely the same as that of my “piston valve,” a description of which was printed in the “Mechanics Magazine” for November 1848.  This piston-valve I invented, as something new, about seven years ago: how old the urn may be, I know not, but its shape is somewhat antique.  Surely, there is nothing new under the sun.

Friday. May 25.__After some deliberation between the photograph and the squares, I decided on reducing the large map of Sidmouth by means of the latter.  Set to work for 5 hours, and completed it in pencil.

Spent the evening with the Le Patourels at Sidbury Castle House.

Saturday. May 26.__Inked in the map of Sidmouth.  This day last week, an Irishman of the name of John William Hamilton, a labouring mason, shot at or pretended to shoot at the Queen.  It is doubted whether there was a ball in the pistol; and he has confessed that he only did it “to be talked about.”  He is in custody.

California is eclypsed!  Quantities of gold have been found in Port Philip, Australia.  The town is deserted to go to the “diggings.”  I am sorry to hear this.

Accounts just arrived from the East,  state that the Punjaub has been annexed to the British possessions.  It was the only way of keeping the country quiet.  Duleep Singh, the Maharajah, has £40.000 a year granted to him for life, in lieu of his sovereignty.  This was done by Proclamation dated March 29. 1849.

Monday. May 28.__ Coloured my map.

Sidmouth is like a garrison town in war-time this week.  To-day the East Devon Yeomanry Cavelry came in.  They usually muster about 500, but this year the number is not so great.

Tuesday. May 29.__Fine day.  At ten this morning the soldiers went on Salcombe Hill to exercise; and in the evening they assembled, as foot soldiers in the Fort Field, for a short drill.

Finished my map of the town and parish of Sidmouth.

Worked for an hour or two in the garden digging, and in clearing where I raised the stones of the railings yesterday.  Nine plants of Indian corn are up.

Wednesday. May 30.__This morning I was awoke by volleys of musketry, for our brave army turn out in the Fort Field at seven o’clock to drill and exercise.  The weather is superb, and has been for a week or more.  The spring was backward; but at last summer has arrived.

Sidmouth. May & June 1849.

Thursday. May 31.__Aroused again this morning by volleys on volleys in the Fort Field.

Spent the evening with the Le Patourels.

Sunday. June 3.__At the Old church in the afternoon: and at the New church in the evening, to hear Mr. Gibbs.  The more I hear him the more I like his manner.

Monday. June 4.__Whilst I was working this evening in the garden, I was unfortunate enough to lose a small gold breast pin.  It was not a valuable one, but my brother gave it me long ago, and it has travelled many thousand miles with me, and I was much vexed at the mishap.  I hunted till quite dark, but in vain.

Tuesday. June 5.__After breakfast this morning I went out to have another look in the garden.  I turned over the earth where I had been digging; “but,” thinks I, “I may as well look for a needle in a bundle of hay.”  I examined the paths, which I had weeded and swept, but to no purpose.  I walked carefully over the beds – “Hullo, there it is!”  Sure enough.  I espied it lying on the rough ground under some cabbage plants.  I thought more of my pin at that moment than I ever had before.

Went with my brother to Lime Park, and had tea with the Walkers.  Beautiful moon-light night to return.

Wednesday. June 6.__Finished making a copy of my pedigree for my 77th cousin Mr. John Massy Hutchinson, now sojourning at Sidmouth.

Put up the pulleys and weight to keep the side door on the Terrace shut.

Thursday. June 7.__Sent my Pedigree to Mr.J.M. Hutchinson, now of West Mount, Sidmouth.

Had an hour or more work in the garden.  I wish it didn’t make one’s back ache.

Friday. June 8.__This evening, Bingham, Burnley, and myself went to a small party at our neighbour’s Mrs. Creighton’s at No. 1. Coburg Terrace.  Besides her son and daughter, we met Miss Gibbs, daughter of Sir George Gibbs, M.D., an old physician who was knighted by George the Fourth Third, Miss Lester, and Mrs. and Miss Rookes.

Saturday. June 9.__ Made a pen-and-ink drawing of the summit of High Peak Hill.

Sunday. June 10.__At church with mother.  A very cold day, and a strong north-east wind.

Monday. June 11.__The French have taken Rome .  I am not aware that they can give a reason for the aggression.

Tuesday. June 12.__Called on Sir George Gibbs, an old physician of Bath, who was knighted by George the Third.  He is now paralytic, and cannot go out; but he likes people to come in and chat with him.  He lent me a clever paper by himself, on the subject of the Forms of Bodies, and of the curves by which they are bounded.  As a branch of this subject, he shewed me a sketchbook containing a number of designs for vases, patera, cups, &c., the outlines of which were bounded by the forms of leaves of trees.  The idea is ingenious.

Wednesday. June 13.__Engaged all the morning in making a pen-and-Indian-ink copy of the Centaur belonging to Mr. Heineken,  which I borrowed from him yesterday.  This bronze Centaur was found by a man called Barnes, at the mouth of the river Sid, in 1840.  It is described in the Gentleman’s Magazine, and other places.

Thursday. June 14.__Started at half past eleven this morning on an expedition with Mr. Heineken to take a plan of Blackbury Castle.  We ascended Trow Hill by the eastern continuation of High Street, the old Roman Road; and at the distance of about three miles and a half turned northwards towards Black Broad Down.  Attaining the Down we veered to the east; and after journeying about six miles from Sidmouth reached the object of our search.  The road runs immediately on the north side of it – a line of road which is likely to be ancient.  But we first went on a quarter of a mile, and took a sketch of an octagonal tower covered with ivy.  Blackbury Castle is made on the ridge of a hill, and is approached on the east and west on the level; but the ground descends towards the north and south.  It is an oval; the conjugate, or east and west diameter measuring 634 feet; whilst the transverse diameter measures 324.  The works are not of remarkable strength, and resemble those of Sidbury Castle.  The earth of the foss outside is thrown up to form the agger.  It measured 36 feet on the slope on the south-by-east side.  But the most interesting part is the grand, and apparently only entrance, on the south side.  A road, flanked by embankments runs south for 180 feet; and two angular embankments with ditches, are constructed outside this road.  So that the last mentioned works form a large triangle, whose apex points south, and whose base is attached to the great oval.  This great entrance points towards “Long Chimney,” (from long chemini, from which word comes Monkish Latin for chemin) the principal British and Roman thoroughfare from the old maritime stations on the east.  We were unable to trace the line of connection from Blackbury Castle, across the valley to the south, or up the opposite hill towards Long Chimney:  and yet there was a light green line across a corn field near Long Chimney, and below this there were the traces of a raised cawsway: but still, these few indications were too indistinct to warrant any certain conclusion.   It is past conjecture that none of the camps towards the west – as at Sidbury, High Peak, &c. – could be seen from Blackbury Castle; for Broad Down rises too high to admit of it.  On the east, none of the camps are now visible in that direction, owing to the plantations of trees which obstruct the view; but doubtless, when the hill was bare, the stations at Hawkdown, Musbury, Membury, and others were visible with ease.  Blackbury Castle itself is a mass of thick plantation.

On returning home we diverged northward over Broad Down to look for the barrows, and see “Roncombe’s Gurt.”  On the highest ground the road passes between two; and further north, one or two more on the east: and lastly we saw three opposite Roncombe’s Gurt, in a cornfield recently inclosed.

“Roncombe’s Gurt” is the reputed head and source of the river Sid, though not the most distant source from the sea.  There are two or three deep and wild chasms here; in the southernmost of which is a little stone-built well, filled by the spring.  We had a drink, and the water was clear and cold.  The tradition runs, that an exciseman, by the name of Roncombe, was some years ago, murdered and thrown in here by some smugglers.  The whole valley now is called Roncombe, from this spot to Sidbury.  By this route we returned – and a rough route too – stopping a few minutes to look at the old house at Sand.  When near Sidford our attention was arrested by the appearance of a parhelion round the sun, but only a portion on the south side was then visible.  It was nearly as bright as a piece of a rainbow, the red colour being next the sun.  When we got to Sidmouth, and the sun was lower, the entire semicircle, like a halo, was discernible, though not so bright in tint.  By an observation with the sextant, the distance of the halo, or the angle subtended, was 22o 8’.  The width of the halo was about that of the diameter of the sun.  It was the first appearance of the kind I had witnessed.

Sidmouth. June 1849.

Friday. June 15.__Finished making a pen-and-ink sketch of Mr. Heineken’s bronze centaur – an engraving of which I should make, if I ever published my contemplated volume on Moridunum.

This evening I was at a party of intimates at Mrs. Walker’s at Lime Park.  Met the Elphinstones with Miss Wadsworth there: the FitzGeralds: Creightons, &c.

Saturday. June 16.__Went down to the beach, and made a coloured sketch of High Peak Hill from Sidmouth.  This would be engraved, as well as the centaur, for the same work.

Practised an hour and a half on the piano forte.

Finished repairing, and giving a second coat of varnish to Mrs. Dolphin’s bird organ.

Sunday. June 17.__At the old church, and at the New.

Monday. June 18.__ Waterloo Day!  The bells ringing, and a flag flying on top of the tower.

Tuesday. June 19.__Called on Mr. J.M. Hutchinson, and our conversation ran mostly on the subject of my ancestors in America.

Spent the evening with Mr. Heineken; the topic of our conversation being mostly antiquarian, and mostly concerning the Hill-Fortresses and Roman Roads in this neighbourhood.  We are contemplating an exhibition this summer to Hembury Fort.

Wednesday. June 20.__Called on Sir George Gibbes, and sat an hour with him.  In the course of conversation on various scientific subjects, he told me that he believed that water was not a compound, but a simple element; and that there was no such thing as oxygen – that it was an effect, or principle, without any materiality; and that he had arrived at this conclusion, as the result of many often-repeated chemical experiments.  I am not prepared to decide as to whether there is any truth on his side, or whether his advanced age (78) has impaired the vigor of his faculties.  I learnt that a correspondent of the “Athenaeum,” subscribing himself “Senex,” is Sir George.  I recollect a controversy on some chemical topics appearing in that publication some months ago.  I forget exactly what “Senex” contended for; but in alluding to his antagonist, Sir George said to me to-day exultingly:-  “I floored him.”

Thursday. June 21. 1849.__Sent Mrs. Dolphin her organ.  At last we have warm weather – 66 in the shade.  Went over Peak Hill with Mr. and Miss Heineken to sketch High Peak; but we started too late to do anything.

Friday. June 22.__Splendid weather!  Went to Mr. Lyde, one of our solicitors here, and who is raising the £1200 for the Burnleys to emigrate with, and put our names to the Insurance paper – Fanny insuring her life against our Mother’s, for the security of Bingham and me.

Monday. June 25.__The French are battering the walls of Rome.  What an infernal shame!  I should be as much justified if I were to go and break open the front door of my neighbour’s house.

There has been another conspiracy by the Socialists to overturn the French government; but the prompt calling out of 80.000 soldiers in Paris, checked it.

The cholera in Paris is subsiding.  A few weeks ago they were dying above 600 a day.

Tuesday. June 26.__ Painted the water butt in the garden.  Went on with my rug for the bazaar of the New Church School to come off in August, which I began yesterday.  The pattern is an inscription, puce-colour on a blue background, to wit, “All Saints’ Church School, August, 1849.”

Went and made a coloured sketch of Lime Park from the river.  Lunched there on pidgeon pie – no bad thing either.

Wednesday. June 27.__Painted the wheelbarrow.  Hip! Hip! Hurra!  The Jew Bill was thrown out of the Lords last night, the numbers being 70 content, and 95 non-content – majority 25.  It was thrown out last year by, I believe, the same majority.

Thursday. June 28.__ Painted some boxes.

Saturday. June 30.__ Painted the steps.

Monday. July 2.__ Had a swim in the sea.  This is the first time I have bathed for several years.

Finished the grounding of my urn rug.

Sidmouth.  July 1849.

Tuesday. July 3. 1849.__The wretch, William Hamilton, who shot, or pretended to shoot at the Queen, has got seven years’ transportation.

This evening I was at a party as Mrs. Rookes’s.

Thursday. July 5.__Read over the Draft for the security of the £1200 to be advanced to the Burnleys.  Also the Affirmation, which my mother signed in presence of Mr. Lyde, to the effect that the copies of the registers of the births, marriages, and deaths of several members of the family were correct.

Bathed:  second time.

Friday. July 6.__Went with my mother paying visits:-  on Mrs. Rookes, in; on the Elphinstones, in; on the Lukes, in; the FitzGeralds, in; the Walkers, in.

Saturday. July 7.__With my mother again paying visits.  On Mrs. White, ill; Mrs. Kennet Dawson (ainée), out; and on Mrs. Levien, in.

The accounts say that California is still rich in gold, and that labourers get from one to two ounces of the precious metal per day.  But a strange state of things exists there.  Carpenters obtain 15 dollars a day wages, and provisions are high.  One dollar for an egg!  There are 44 ships lying at San Francisco, half deserted by their crews.

Sunday. July 8.__ Had a pleasant bathe at my usual place beyond the Lime Kilns; the tide falling, and three feet deep on the sand.  The sun was bright, and the pebbles so hot I could scarcely sit down on them.  This is downright summer weather, and the thermometer above 70o in the shade.  We have scarcely had a drop of rain for more than a month; and though the hay has been splendidly got in, the gardens begin to require some moisture.

July 10. Tuesday.___ Bathed third fourth time.

Thursday. July 12.__ Bathed:- fifth time.  The stones scorchingly hot to sit upon.  Finished my urn-rug for the bazaar, and sent it to Mrs. Gibbes.

Spent the evening at Lime Park.

Friday. July 13.__Started at 3.P.M. with Mr. and Miss Heineken, and Mrs. Smith for Budleigh Salterton.  They put me down in Otterton, and drove on to see Bicton.  I went into the church and took rubbings of the two brasses recording the deaths of Robert Duke, anno 1641, and of Sarah, wife of Richard Duke, who died the same year.  We then proceeded to our destination, where Mr. Heineken transacted some business with his house agent.  Took outlines of his houses.  Made a coloured sketch of Otterton Head, which Miss Heineken also sketched.  We got home at nine.  The hedges near Otterton were studded with glowworms.  We brought home one.

Saturday. July 14.__Made two coloured drawings of Mr. Heineken’s houses, and sent them to him.

The weather is still fine, and very warm.  The papers tell us that the thermometer was 86 in the shade at the Royal Humane Society’s Receiving House, in Hyde Park, at noon on the ninth instant; and adds that this is the highest which it has attained for many years – I think it said “ever” in this country.  On the first of July 1846, I saw it at 90 in the Druggists’ shop, which stands at the corner of Jermyn Street, and the Haymarket.

Alas!  Rome was entered by the French on the 3rd Instant.

So the Queen is going to pay a visit to Ireland at last.  As the law has stopped the agitations in that ungrateful country of late, the Queen can now venture to go.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer allows that for the year ending April 5. 1849, the expenditure exceeded the income in the sum of £269.377..19..1.   It is strange that whenever the Whigs are in office they always run the country into debt, but are always talking of economy.

Sunday. July 15.__ Bathed – 6th time.  In the evening took a walk up Salcombe Hill along the edge of the cliff.

Monday. July 16. __Spent the evening with Mr. Heineken.  Reduced with the camera lucida one of my rubbings of the Otterton brasses.

Tuesday. July 17.__Finished the brasswork of my two-lense Galilean telescope.  Bathed – 7th time.

Wednesday. The papers observe that up to June 11, the number of cases of cholera in Great Britain since the commencement of this visitation is 18.493; and the deaths 8.091.

It is causing great alarm in America.

George Hudson, the “Railway King,” a quondam haberdasher of York, who is supposed to have made upwards of a million sterling by railways, is now discovered to have done so by the most fraudulent transactions.  This man has been lauded to the skies, courted by Dukes, made member of parliament, and I saw him elbow Lords in the crowd, with much pomposity, at the Marquis of Northampton’s.  As if he did not make money fast enough, his admirers subscribed and gave him £10.000.  It comes out that by one dishonest transaction alone, he pocketed £140.000!  He is likely to forfeit all his ill-gotten gains, and deservedly sink back to his former obscurity.

Thursday. July 19.__ Bathed – 8th time.

Saturday. July 21.__ Bathed – 9th time.  Engaged all the afternoon bookbinding.

Sunday. July 22.__ Bathed – 10th time.

Monday. July 23. __ Mr. Thomas Lyde, the solicitor called, and we all put our signatures to the two documents relative to the £12.000 for the Burnleys, - that is, the two Burnleys, mother, Bingham, and myself.  One document, of five skins of parchment, is Bingham’s and my security for lending our names; and the other of six skins, is the Messrs. Russell’s security for lending the money.

Tuesday, July 24.__ Bathed – 11th time.  Sea roughish.  A heavy shower came on as I was returning, but I got shelter in the cavern under the limekilns.  These cliffs are much fallen away since my recollection, and are still continuing to do so.  The rain is most welcome to the country, though inconvenient to oneself.

Began oil painting, after an interval of several years.  Put in the sky of a view of Sidmouth, taken from near the Preventive House, and looking towards High Peak Hill.

Wed. July 25.__         Oil painted 5 hours.  Then took a walk up Salcombe Hill.

Thursday. July 26.__ Bathed – 12th time this year.

Friday. July 27.__Last Wednesday Prince Albert laid the first stone of the Harbour of Refuge at Portland.  Coins belonging to the present year were enclosed in a bottle, which was then sunk into the block of stone and sealed down.  The mass weighed 14 tons, and at a signal given, it was let loose, and down it fell with a tremendous splash into the sea.  As this stone will become imbedded in the soil at the bottom of the sea, it will probably never be seen again, until some future geological period, when the strata now forming down there, may, by new changes, be raised above the surface.  The breakwater will extend in a curved direction one mile and a half; and the estimated cost is only £560.000.

From Italy we learn that the French have established themselves in Rome; and that on the 15th the Pope’s authority was declared to be re-established.

The cholera has increased during the hot weather.  On the 26th the returns stood thus:-


Attacks                        Deaths

In London                   415                  120

In England and Wales            239                  103

In Scotland                 19 11

673 234


Saturday. July 28.__ Bathed – 13th time this year.  Painted in oil five hours, and seven before = 12.

Sunday. July 29.__Bathed – 14th time.  Went this evening to All Saints Church.

Monday. July 30.__Painted 5 hours; and the 12 = 17.  Oil painting is certainly much more satisfactory than water.  Went to Sidbury in Smith’s “della,” and called on William Henry Fellowes, just come over from Canada: and on the Hunts.

Tuesday. July 31.__Bathed – 15th time.  The tide was high and the sea calm.  Made some experiments in diving.  Painted 4 hours at my view of Sidmouth, looking west, & finished my painting.  The 4 added to the 17 before, make 21 hours in all.

Poor “Mr. Tommy,” the white drake, makes a very disconsolate widower.  He, and his wife “Mrs. Tommy” were sitting as usual under the currant bushes, after being tired of walking about looking for slugs, when Mrs. T., who had not been very well for several days, very quietly leant her head forward and died.  The drake was found sitting beside her perfectly contented, but was very loth to go to roost without her in the evening.  All the next day, (Saturday) she was left in the same position; and it was amusing to see with what complaisancy he sat beside her.  In the evening, however, it was decided that she must be buried; and in order to convince Mr. Tommy that his wife had not been stolen from him by the hand of man, but that she was really dead, he was present at the solemnity and he was even put into the grave on on his wife before she was covered, that he might know what had become of her.   This seems to have had a salutary effect, for although he appears disconsolate, he does not wander about the premises to search for her.  She was not above eight years old; but about a month ago we were obliged to kill an old duck “Mrs. Mooty,” which must have been upwards of 20.  Mrs. Mooty was roughly used by the Muscovy drake (not Mr. Tommy) otherwise she might have lived on.  My sister had her 8 years:  the Rev. Prebendary Dornford, of Plymtree, had her 11, and before that she had been brought from Italy, a full grown duck.  I should think that twenty years is an advanced period for a duck.

Wednesday. August 1. 1849.__Parliament prorogued to-day.  To-day, at 3 o’clock in the afternoon, the Queen embarked on board the “Victoria and Albert,” steam-yacht at Osborn, Isle of Wight, for her summer tour.  Prince Albert and 4 of the eldest children went too.  The other steamers accompanied them, and the weather was beautiful.  They first visit Ireland, and then go on to Balmoral in Scotland.  The fleet passed Sidmouth about midnight.

Thursday. Aug. 2.__ Bathed – 16th time.

Saturday. Aug. 4.__Bathed – 17th time.

Sunday. Aug. 5__ Bathed – 18th time; and it was an uncomfortable bathe.  The wind was strong from the south-east, and I was obliged to keep my clothes from being blown away with great stones.  The tide was so low that I was necessitated to run a great distance on the sand before I could get up to my knees in water; and then, by lying down, I only got smothered in surf.  I stumbled on a sunken rock and cut my foot, and scratched my leg.  I was surprised at the quantity it bled; and having no means of stopping it, and not choosing to sit in the wind half undressed until it chose to stop, I was fain to put on stocking and boot as it was.  So I finished my toilet and walked home.

At the old church with my mother.  Mr. Heineken (Unitarian) came in with the Hodges.

Monday. Aug. 6. 1849.__Began painting in oil a view of Sidmouth looking east, and was at it for six hours.  This is a companion to the view done a week ago.

Tuesday. Aug. 7. 1849.__Fanny went to Exeter, on her way to Heightley for a day or two, to say Good bye to aunt Cocks before she sails for Adelaide.  Intended to have gone into Exeter, but it was a rainy morning.

Painted 4 hours; and the 6 = 10.

Wed. Aug. 8.__Bathed – 19th time.  Painted 5 hours; and the 10 before are equal to 15.

Thursday.  Aug.9.__Bathed 20th time, and the water felt quite warm.  Painted 5 hours, and the 15 = 20.

The papers mention that the Queen has had a most enthusiastic reception in Ireland from all classes.  “Repeal” and all other rankling topics seem to have been dropped; and one hearty expression of loyalty has met her on all sides.  I am glad of this; and I trust that this visit will do much good.  The royal squadron reached Cove (now changed to Queenstown) at 10.P.M. on Thursday the 2nd Instant; and she visited Cork the day after with Prince Albert.  They left Cover (Queenstown) on Saturday morning for Dublin at 9 o’clock, and put into Tramore for the night.  They got to Kingstown at 8 on Sunday Evening.  On Monday the 5th they landed at Dublin; and the account given in the Times newspaper, represents it as most enthusiastic.  On Tuesday they visited most of the public buildings.  On Wednesday the Queen held a levée at Dublin Castle, at which 2000 attended.  And on Thursday there was a review, and a Drawing-room in the evening.

Friday. Aug. 10.__Painted 4 hours, and finished my view of Sidmouth, looking east.  This 4, added to the 20 before, make 24.

Saturday. Aug. 11.__ Bathed – 21st time.  By the returns given, the cholera has been steadily increasing for several weeks.  The weekly mortality in London, for the week ending August the 4th was 1967 for all diseases; but the average for the season is but 1008.  In the two previous weeks it was 1369, 1741, and 1931; and the last, just mentioned, 1967.  The cholera for several weeks has numbered deaths as follows: - 49, 124, 152, 339, 678, 783, and 926.

Sunday. Aug. 12.__ Bathed – 22nd time.  At the old church.

Monday. Aug. 13.__Made a sketch of the unfortunate schooner that lies wrecked on the beach near the river.  The French are likely to be wrecked if they don’t take care.  The Exchequer is deficient £30.000.000.

Tuesday. Aug. 14.__Went into Exeter with the Burnleys, and saw them, and John Lawrence, their servant, on the railway for Plymouth, to join the ship “Constance” which is to take them to Australia.  I wonder if we shall ever meet again? – and if so, whether the meeting will take place out there, or in England, or indeed in a further off country than the antipodes?

The Queen’s progress in Ireland.  On Friday, Her Majesty paid visits to Carton, the Duke of Leinster’s seat; and in the evening left for Belfast.  The night and morning were boisterous and rainy; but the weather improved on Saturday afternoon, when the Queen visited Belfast and knighted the Mayor – Sir William Johnson.  The Lord Mayor of Dublin, Timothy O’Brien, M.P., is to be made a Baronet.  On Sunday, after divine service on board the yacht, they proceeded to Loch Ryan, on the coast of Scotland, where they anchored for the night.  And yesterday (Monday) they steered for the Clyde.

Wed. Aug. 15. 1849.__ Bathed – 23rd time this year.

Thursday. Aug. 16.__Spent the evening at the Walkers’.

Friday. Aug. 17.__Heard from the Burnleys at Plymouth.  They are pleased with the arrangements on board, and are to sail to-day immediately after breakfast.  At a ball and supper at Mrs. Elphinstone’s.   Home at one in the morning.

Sat. Aug. 18.__ Bathed – 24th time.  The Queen has got to her seat in Scotland at last, where she will enjoy a little repose after the turmoil of the last fortnight.  Last Monday the Royal Squadron anchored for the night on the Clyde below Greenock; on Tuesday the Queen visited Glasgow, knighted the Lord Provost, and then went on to Perth, where the august visitors remained: and on Wednesday they left for Balmoral.

Sunday. Aug. 19.__ Twice at the old church.  The schooner that was driven ashore here a week ago, was sold by auction yesterday.  Mr. Lousada and Captain Matthews bought her hull and lower rigging for £44.  This evening at high water, by means of casks she was floated off.

Monday. Aug. 20.__The schooner was floated to Topsham.

Bathed – 25th time this year.

Last Saturday the deaths for the week were 2230, but the average is 1008.  This excess is owing to the cholera, the amount of fatal cases being 1230; which, I believe is the highest yet.  During the plague of 1666 it is recorded that 10.000 a week died in London; and that at Stepney there were 116 gravediggers that year.

Wednesday. Aug. 22.__Bathed – 26th time.

Friday. Aug. 24.__Bathed – 27th time this year.

Sunday. Aug. 26.__ At the old church.   Took a walk on the beach to High Peak Hill.  Bathed twice – being the 28th and 29th times:  once going and once returning.

Monday. Aug. 27.__ Called on Sir George Gibbes.

Tuesday. Aug. 28.__ Bathed – 30th time this year.

Wedneday. Aug. 29.__Took a walk up Salcombe Hill along the edge of the cliff.  In the upper field I counted nearly 20 circles of fungi, the largest being 30 feet in diameter.

Thursday. Aug. 30.__ Bathed – 31st time.

Saturday. Sep. 1.__ Bathed – 32nd time.

In turning over the leaves of Polwhele’s History of the county, I saw, in a note, ch.II. sec. IV, p.183 a quotation from a work by General Simcoe, where the remains of a fortress are cursorily mentioned as existing on High Peak Hill, & that this spot is at the same distance from Exeter as Moridunum is described to have been.  It is eight years since I discovered the remains of this fortress, and I was not aware till now that any writer had spoken of its existence.  But my view, respecting Moridunum, thus receives confirmation.

Sunday. Sep.2.__At church with my mother.  Bathed – 33rd time.

Tuesday. Sep.4.__Went with my mother to the Bazaar held in the New Church School Room.  £74..10 was obtained, and this will pay off the remainder of the debt incurred in buildings.

Wednesday.__ Bathed – 34th time this year.

Thursday.__ Bathed – 35th time.

Saturday. __ Bathed – 36th time.

Sunday.__ At church with my mother.  Bathed – 37th time.

Monday.__ Busy making extracts from Polwhele, and from Dr. Oliver’s works on the Monasteries.

Tuesday.__ Went to Otterton and East Budleigh.  Examined the parish register and made two extracts under the date 1656, attested by Ro. Duke.  I paid two half crowns.  At Otterton I copied John Green’s effigies and ship on his tomb in the churchyard: and made a coloured sketch of the stocks, as an interesting feature amongst the romantic scenery.  Coming home I made a coloured sketch of High Peak, as seen from Pinn, or more properly Pen, Farm.  From the top of Peak Hill, Portland looked more distinct than I ever remember to have seen it.

Wedneday. Sep. 12._- Bathed – 38th time this year.  The water is not so warm as it was a month ago.

Called on Mr. J.M. Hutchinson, at West Mount.  Had an hour’s chat with him and Mrs. Hutchinson.

Friday. Sep.14.__ Bathed – 39th time.  Rather cold at first.  Engraved on wood the signatures of “Ro. Duke” copied from the Budleigh Parish Register last Tuesday.  Walked up to Lime Park after dinner and had tea with the Walkers.

Sidmouth. September. 1849.

Saturday. Sep. 15.__In Woolmer’s paper there appears our advertisement for letting the house, No. 4 Coburg Terrace.  Creighton called to ask me to go to his wedding next Tuesday at Sidbury Church.

Sunday. Sep. 16.__ At church.  Bathed – 40th time.

Monday. Sep. 17.__Bathed – 41st time this year.  Engraved on wood several hours the Duke coat of arms at Otterton.

Tuesday. Sep. 18.__Bingham and myself breakfasted with the Creightons’ at 1 Coburg Terrace, and then went to Captain Creighton’s wedding at Sidbury.  His bride, Miss Ann FitzGerald, eldest daughter of Major FitzGerald of Mount Edgar, was more courageous than himself on the occasion.  I have heard that the ladies are generally so on such occasions, though I don’t know why.  She answered “I will” to the clergyman’s question, very firmly.  We had a splendid breakfast afterwards at Major Fitzgerald’s, where I had to make a speech and propose the healths of the Bridesmaids.  It is said to have been long the custom for the gentlemen to help the bridesmaids at weddings: but whether the times are changed, or whether it is owing to the growth of real modesty, or mock modesty, I don’t know, but it seems to be falling into disuse.  However, in order that the ladies shd. know that I had not forgotten the custom, I filled my pockets with those bon-bons called “kisses,” and these I distributed liberally.  The practice of clapping hands and knocking the table after drinking toasts is being very properly discontinued in decent society.  It is said that the Queen has expressed her dislike to so much noise as she has heard made, when her health has been drunk, at public dinners, and perhaps it is to this that we owe a better state of things.  To sing a few bars of music is now the plan.  To these, almost any simple words can be accommodated.  The notes are: -


Line of music follows:


“Here’s to our noble host,” &c., or any other words suitable to the toast can be sung to these notes.  One person leads off with the first two bars, and then the accompaniment is given by the rest of the company.  The effect is very pleasing.  Altogether, the party went off admirably.  When the bride and bridegroom drove away, Major Fitz-Gerald threw a shoe after them “for good luck.”    What is the origin of this custom?

Wednesday. Sep.19.__To-day was kept as a day of fasting and humiliation, to endeavour to avert the divine anger which has come upon us in the form of the cholera.

At church with my mother.  The congregation was numerous.

Bathed – 42nd time.

Friday. Sep. 21._­_Bathed – 43rd time.

Saturday. Sep. 22.__Bathed – 44th time.  Covered the seats of the drawing room chairs.  Finished Sir George Gibbes’s coat of arms, coloured on a large sheet of paper, for Miss G.

Sunday. Sep. 23.__At church solus – mother being bilious and unwell.  Bathed – 45th time.  In the evening at the New church.

Monday. Sep. 24.__Worked in the garning all day, and superintended putting up the new gate-posts in the yard.

Tuesday. Sep. 25.__ Bathed – 46th time.  A very pleasant bathe.  The water was nearly high, moderately calm, and not too cold, though not so warm as a month ago.  The sky was cloudless, the sun hotter than I have felt it for several weeks, and the stones warm to dress upon.  Called at the Cunninghams’ and saw Mrs. C. and Mrs. Lewis.  Prepared for some wood engraving.  Began one of the inscriptions taken from the East Budleigh Register – namely, the second one, which is the shortest.

Wednesday. Sep. 26.__Engraved 4 hours on wood at the inscription beginning “Item,” &c.  I am obliged to do it on beech, not being able to get boxwood in Sidmouth of sufficient size.  During the evening I made use of one of my lenses or bullseyes to throw the concentrated light of a candle on the wood.  I found it answer very well.  I have seen the wood engravers in London use a globular bottle of water for this purpose.

Thursday. Sep. 27.__ A stormy, rainy day, with the wind from the north-east.  Engraved 6 hours; and the 4 yesterday are equal to 10.

Friday. Sep. 28.__A fine morning.  Bathed – 47th time.  A tolerably pleasant bathe after yesterday’s storm.  Engraved 3 hours by daylight, and half an hour by candle-light = 3½, which, + 10 = 13½.

Spent the evening at Mrs. Walker’s, Lime Park, where I met the Radfords of Sidmount, and the Tyrrells of Sidcliff.

Saturday. Sep. 29.__ Michaelmas Day!  Mild, rainy weather.   Engraved 2 hours, and the 13½ = 15½, say 16, and finished the inscription.  Took several impressions.

Gardened 2 hours.  Planted cabbages – pruned raspberries, and trimmed the ivy on the wall.

Sidmouth. Oct. 1849.

Sunday. Sep. 30.__ At church with mother.  Bathed – 48th time.

Monday. October 1.__Began the other inscription, taken from the East Budleigh Parish Register, sub anno 1656.  This is the first, in chronological order; but being the longest, I preferred doing the other first.  It begins “Md. whereas John Thomas Heathman and Solomon Hayman,” &c.  I was all the morning preparing the wood (also beech) tracing the words, and transferring them to the block.  Began in the evening with the graver, and was three hours at it.

Tuesday. Oct. 2.__ Bathed – 49th time this year.  Rather cold.  Gardened.  Made a fire and burnt the weeds.  Immolated nearly 100 copies of my first puerility “Branscombe Cliffs.”  Thus I advise all authors to devote their first works.  Roasted some potatoes in the ashes – and eat them too.  There is a very nice flavour in potatoes dressed in this way.

Engraved 4 hours, and the 3 yesterday make 7.

Wednesday. Oct. 3.__Engraved 4 hours: and the 7 before are 11.

Thursday. Oct. 4.__ Bathed – 50th time.  The waves were large, and my arms and legs ached before I got out of them.  It is easy enough, in bathing, to get into a rough sea, but the difficulty is, to get out.  The return of the wave drags one back so.

Friday. Oct. 5.__Engraved an hour and finished the inscription.  Although much longer than the other, I was only 12 hours about it instead of 16.  So much for practice.  Printed off several impressions.  Sent some to the Rev. G.D. Adams, the curate of East Budleigh.

Saturday. Oct. 6.__ Bathed – 51st time this year.  It was so cold and cheerless, that I don’t think I shall bathe again.

A new theory respecting the cause of cholera is much talked of.  It is called the “Fungoid Theory,” and ascribes the disease to the growth of minute fungi in the system.  This, however, is rather the revival of an old theory than the exhibition of a new one, inasmuch as it is mentioned by Linaeus and others.  Their size is stated to be from the 50.000th to the 500th of an inch in diameter.  Their germs are said to exist in the air and the water of infected places, - that they are thus carried into the system, and fix themselves mostly in the alimentary canal, causing intense irritation – and that the developed parasites are there found, on desection, and in the “rice-water” dejections.  It is added that in their developed condition their form is globular, and sometimes cup-shaped.  I am not prepared to decide on the plausibility of this theory.

The Queen has returned to Osborne from her summer tour to Balmoral.  She left Balmoral with Prince Albert, the children, and suite on Thursday the 27th of last month at half past 8 in the morning: - reached Edinburgh at 6½ P.M.: - Berwick at 8, less 10 minutes, and slept at Howick, the seat of Earl Grey.  Here she planted an oak.  They left on Friday morning at 11.  Got to York at 20 minutes before 3, and at Derby at 11 minutes after 6, where she slept, at Cuffs’ Midland Hotel.  At 8 on Saturday they left.  Got to Birmingham by 10. Gloucester at 12.  Lunched at Swindon at 1. Arrived at Basingstoke at 3¼ P.M.  At Gosport by 4¼, and finally arrived at Osborne at 6.

A great dispute has arisen between Russia and Turkey.  The Hungarian war is over, and Kossuth, with his associates have fled to Turkey.  Russia has required them to be delivered up to be hanged.  Turkey has refused, and with the concurrence of our ambassador.  Russia has recalled her minister, and things look serious.  If anything comes of it, we are likely to be implicated.

Sunday. Oct. 7.__At church with mother, and received the sacrament.

Monday. Oct. 8.__Called at Lime Park, the Revd. S. Walker being here.  Mrs. Cunningham and Mrs. Lewis and her pretty child came in:  also Mrs. Johnson and her sister.

Engraved my autograph on wood.  It took me about three hours.

Tuesday. Oct. 9.__ My bathe on Saturday did me no good.  I got chilled before I could dry myself and dress.  I feel flushed in the face and chilly in the body, and the rheumatism has come on terribly in my left leg.  Heaped on blankets and perspired all night.

Wedneday. Oct. 10.__ No better.  The warm bed increased the rheumatism.

Thursday. Oct. 11.__ Little better.  Went to a small party at Lime Park, because I would not confess I was unwell:  but I was unable to conceal my aches and pains.

Friday. Oct. 12.__A trifle better.  Hobbled to Mr. Heineken’s and shewed him my recent labours on wood.  The exercise seemed to do my rheumatism good.

Saturday. Oct. 13.__ Worse again, and flew to galvanism.

Friday. Oct.19.__ Had a shocking week.  The worst rheumatic attack I ever had.  Took a warm bath.  Called in Dr. Cullen.  Amid all this I have had little inclination for reading.  From London the cholera accounts are most satisfactory.  Last week the deaths from the epidemic were 110:  and receding during several weeks they were 288, 434, 839, 1682, 2026 (the highest amount, Septr. 1.) 1682,......1230,  926, 783, 678, 339, 152, 124, 49, &c.  The total deaths in London last week were 1075; the average amount in this quarter, in healthy seasons, being 1162.  So here is a cheering return.  Our new form of prayer has not been offered up in vain.

Thursday. Nov. 1. 1849. __Oh such a time as I have had!  Such miserable days!  Such sleepless nights!

Tuesday. Nov. 6.__To-day mother and Bingham went to the Rev. Charles and Mrs. Webber (of Staunton on Wye) and the Agreement to let the house was signed by the two principals, and witnessed by Bingham.  We are to leave on Friday.

Th. 8. Novr.__Placed the Agreement in the hands of Geo. Ratford, Attorney-at-Law.

Friday. Nov. 9.__Left Sidmouth for a few months, and took a lodging at 5. Bouverie Place, Mount Radford.

Monday. Nov. 12.__ Had a painful day: but hope a crisis has passed.

Thursday. Nov. 15.__ To-day was set apart as a day of solemn humiliation before Almighty God, in acknowledgement of his having so immediately removed the pestilence of the cholera, after our prayers for that purpose were put up, only a few months – I may say weeks – ago.

Sat. Nov. 17.__My brother walked down to Ide to-day, to try and find the monument to a Hutchinson who died there about 200 years ago.  I was consulting Oliver’s “Ecclesiastical Antiquities” lately at Sidmouth; and I think it was there that we saw it.  The old church, however, was pulled down and cleared away about seventeen years ago; and now there is an ugly whitewashed affair to greet the antiquary.  It is said to have been sold to a builder, & all the monuments destroyed.  I think Oliver also mentions that in Kenn church there is a monument to a Hutchinson who died there also near two centuries ago.  This will be a subject for future inquiry.  He was one of the Greek translators of the Bible, and chaplain to Charles I.


[At this point, POH has inserted a copy of the prayer referred to above.  It reads as follows:


By her Majesty’s Special Command


O Almighty God and Father, whose power no creature is able to resist, and in whose hand are the issues of life and death:  look down, we beseech Thee, from Heaven Thy, dwelling-place, upon us Thine unworthy servants, who turn to Thee, their only refuge, in this season of sickness and great mortality.  We confess, O Lord, that we have not deserved to be free from that visitation of Thy wrath, which has afflicted other nations of the earth.  We acknowledge with shame and contrition that we have shown ourselves unthankful for many special mercies vouchsafed to us, and have not made that return for our national blessings which Thou mightiest justly require at our hands.  We have departed from Thy commandments; we have followed too much the things of this present world; and in our prosperity we have not sufficiently honoured Thee, the Author and Giver of it all.  If Thou wert to deal with us after our sins, or reward us according to our iniquities, we could not stand in Thy sight.

But Thou hast revealed Thyself unto us as a God of mercy and forgiveness, towards those who confess their unworthiness, and turn to Thee in repentance and prayer.  When Israel had provoked Thee to wrath, and thousands fell by the destroying pestilence, Thou didst stay the sword of the avenging angel, when the purpose of Thy judgment was fulfilled.  When the men of Nineveh repented of their iniquity, Thou didst lay aside the fierceness of Thine anger, and sparedst the guilty city, when Thou sawest that they turned from their evil way.

And now, O Lord, we entreat Thee after Thy rich mercy to grant unto us Thine afflicted servants the like spirit of repentance, that Thou mayest withdraw Thy chastisements from our land, and stay the plague and grievous sickness which is abroad, making many desolate.  May the judgments which Thou has sent, work in us a more lively faith, a more entire obedience, a more earnest endeavour to conform to Thy will, and to advance Thy glory.  Make us duly sensible of Thy goodness, in maintaining the domestic tranquillity of our land, in preserving us from intestine commotions, and in granting a plentiful return to the labours of our husbandmen.  Teach us to show our thankfulness for these mercies, by an increasing desire to relieve distress, to remove all occasions of discontent and murmurings, and to promote goodwill and concord amongst ourselves.  And may the frequent instances of mortality which we have beheld, remind us all of the nearness of death, and dispose us so to number our days, that we may apply our hears unto wisdom:  that, whether living or dying, we may be found faithfully disciples of Him who has taken away the sting of death, and opened the gate of everlasting life to all believers.

Hear us, O Lord, for Thy goodness is great:  and according to the multitude of Thy mercies receive these our petitions, through Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.



Printed  and Sold by J. Harvey, Sidmouth. – Price One halfpenny each, or Three shillings per hundred.  ]


Mount Radford, near Exeter.  Nov. 1849.

Monday. Nov. 19. 1849.__Bought “The Western Miscellany” for the current month.  It contains the first half of my Essay on the Literature of the Day. [See Feb.19. 1849.]  Though this is a country publication, printed in Exeter, it is creditable.

Woolmer’s Gazette of this week pays me a compliment on the same article.  If they did not think more of the essay than I do, they would hold their tongues.

Friday. Nov. 23. 1849.__Adelaide, the Queen Dowager, and widow of William the Fourth, seems to be dying.  She has been in bad health for some time; but if we may judge by the tenor of the bulletins, it appears that she is gradually sinking.  By her death £100.000 p. annum will revert to the country.  Six or seven years ago my friend Mrs. Oldham tried hard to procure me an appointment in her Household.  The adverse letter which she received in reply to her application from Lord Howe (Adelaide’s Lord Chamberlain) she kept by her for three or four years, not liking to shew it to me: but I have it now somewhere or other.  The late Mr. Oldham had been Deputy Judge Advocate General, and was acquainted with many persons of influence.

Tried to-day for the first time to resume my literary labours,  though I am obliged to write with great difficulty on the sofa.  Had out my rough draft on my proposed article on the “Dukes of Otterton,” with the extracts, notes, &c. made some weeks ago at Sidmouth.  Looked them over, and prepared to arrange them.

Saturday. Nov. 24.__By Woolmer’s Gazette, I see that the bulletin issued last Wednesday, was the following:  -


“The Priory. Nov. 21.

“The Queen Dowager has passed a tranquil night, but without much sleep.

“Her Majesty remains in the same state this morning.

“David Davies, M.D.”

Monday. Nov. 26.__Dr. Cullen rode over from Sidmouth this morning to see me.  He arrived at half past nine, and was in time for breakfast.  Having 15 miles to come, he started early.  He left again at noon.

Tuesday. Nov. 27.__Beautiful day!  Took a turn out of doors for a quarter of an hour – the first time I have been out since I left Sidmouth.

Sat. 1. Dec.__ Jog on as usual: sofa all day.

Tues. Dec. 4. 1849.__So the Queen Dowager is dead at last; but I believe the respect of the nation is with her.  She has left no money; for it is said that every farthing which she did not require for her support has been given away in charities.  What killed her at last was a gentle cough, by which she broke a blood vessel in the lungs.  The following is the last bulletin: -


“The Priory. Dec. 2. 1849. – Her Majesty the Queen Dowager expired at seven minutes befor 2 o’clock on Sunday morning the 2nd of December, without any apparent suffering, and retaining her composure of mind to the last.”

“David Davies, M.D.”

“Richard Bright, M.D.”


She was the daughter of the Duke of Saxe Coburg Meiningen – married the Duke of Clarence (William IV) July 13. 1818 at Kew – had four miscarriages – her husband became king in 1830, and died in 1837, when she became a widow.  Her health appears never to have been good, and she was constantly travelling or altering her place of residence for change of air.  She will be buried by William IV at Windsor; and both embalming and lying in state are dispensed with.  I never saw her: but I saw her husband once.

Saturday. Dec. 6.__ A Letter of mine, reflecting on the fact that there is no Museum in Exeter for the preservation of local antiquities appears in Woolmer to-day.

Thursday. Dec. 13.__The Queen Dowager was buried to-day in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor.  The outer coffin bears the following inscription: -



Serenissimae Principessae


Reginae Dotariae,

Obiit 11do die Decembris,

Anno Domini MDCCCXLIX,

Aetatis suae LVIII.”


The Queen left directions for a plain funeral, and requested that the coffin might be carried by sailors.  Ten were had from the Royal Yacht, the “Victoria and Albert.”  Prince Albert was in the chapel, and some members of the Royal Family.

Dec.20.__ Mr. Heineken came into Exeter to play violoncello at the Oratorio, and gave us a call.

Dec. 25.__ Christmas Day!  Passed it very quietly.  This week a literary forgery of mine appears in Woolmer.  It is entitled Helas for Bennet, and purports to be an old poem recording the death of Bennet, who was burnt at Liverydole in 1531; and that the said poem, written on vellum, was recently found in an old oak chest discovered in the remains of the alleged Sidmouth Priory – now Manstone Farm.  (added later)Manston is in Sidbury Parish.  There was no Priory at Sidmouth.  It was at Otterton and Sidmouth was attached to it.

Monday. Dec. 31. 1849,__ Last Day of the Year!  The ground is covered with ice and snow, and the weather has been cold for the last week; but the sky is cloudless, and the sun shines bright.

So the old year goes out.  England is the most prosperous country in Europe.  France is tottering on the eve of all sorts of convulsions – Spain is in debt – Italy in confusion, with the Pope still a fugitive – Turkey and Russia talking of war – Germany very unsettled – and so on all round the map.


< Go back to the previous page

Contact Us

East Devon AONB Partnership
Kennaway House
Coburg Road, Sidmouth
EX10 8NG

Tel: 01404 46663

Email : info@eastdevonaonb.org.uk

Subscribe to our e-newsletter

Follow Us:twitter logo

'In the Footsteps of Peter Orlando Hutchinson' outputs

An introductory leaflet to 'In the Footsteps of Peter Orlando Hutchinson' (pdf)

A summary of our Peter Orlando Hutchinson Year 1 achievements (pdf)

About 'In the Footsteps of Peter Orlando Hutchinson'

In the Footsteps of Peter Orlando Hutchinson (2010-2013) has been delivered by the East Devon AONB Partnership on behalf of and with the financial support of Defra, Devon County Council, East Devon District Council, the Heritage Lottery Fund (Your Heritage) and the Sid Vale Association's Keith Owen Trust Fund.

Phil Planel is your first point of contact for this cultural and historic landscapes project.

Find out more >