POH Transcripts - 1851

Wednesday. January 1.1851.__New Year’s Day! Mild and raining, and a very dark morning.

Monday. Jan.6.__Made a plantation of the currant and gooseberry bushes, to succeed the old ones. The weather, however, has been, and still is, so remarkably mild that everything is beginning bud out as if it were spring.

Spent the evening at Lime Park.

Tuesday. Jan.7.__Spent the evening with Mr. Heineken.

Thursday. Jan.9.__ Engraved the wood and the obverse side of the Roman coin recently found near Mill Cross, Sidmouth; and which now belongs to Mr. Heineken. The discovery of this coin is important, when coupled with that of the centaur, found in 1840, as going to establish the idea that the Romans at one time made use of the harbour formerly existing at the mouth of the Sid. As it is also likely they occupied the camps on High Peak and Sidbury Castle Hills, and had a station at Sidmouth, the discovery of the coin adds much to the notion of their permanent occupancy of the shores round the harbour. The coin was found by William Sweet, junior, rope-maker, whilst digging to repair a pump, about two feet below the surface. I went yesterday

Sidmouth. Jan.1851.

to enquire the exact spot where it was turned up. The man was not in, but I was shewn the place in the yard where the pavement had been taken up. The place where Mill Lane, that runs on the south side of All Saints’ Church, abuts upon the top of High Street, is called Mill Cross. There was probably an ancient cross here – perhaps on the east side of High Street, opposite the Lane. Forty or fifty yards below this, also on the east side, stood the old mill that belonged 600 years ago to Adam de Radway. This mill is in the recollection of persons now living; but it was falling into disuse, as the present mill, down by the river, was erected about 55 years ago. I can remember the hollow in the ground where the water-wheel worked; and some paltry cottages stood there, which were burnt down one evening when I was dining with the Mortimores at Salcombe Lodge. We went out on the lawn to look at the blaze; and when I walked home at eleven o’clock, six or eight houses were all in flames. I forget the date, but I think I entered it in my diary at the time - some three years ago. At the east end of Mill Lane, by Sidlands, and between High Street and the turning into Blackmore Fields, and on the south side of the Lane, there are the entrance doors into two houses. I was led into the most westerly one. I passed through a passage about five or six yards long; and emerging into a small court yard, the pump stands against the wall of the house, immediately on the right hand, and close to the back door. I believe they were digging on the south-east side of the pump when Sweet found the coin. It is the size of the old Roman semi-libella, or about the bigness of a farthing. It appears to be a Claudius, and on the reverse there is a female figure, with what looks like the word “Felicitas” around it.

Friday. Jan.10.__ Engraved on wood the inscription on the 4th bell in Sidmouth Church tower, videlicet:- “+Est michi collatum ihc istud nomen amatum,” or “Est mihi collatum Jesus istud nomen amatum, or, Jesus, that beloved name, is given to me.

Saturday. Jan.11.__Touched up yesterday’s work, and printed some impressions. Also engraved some small letters out of type metal, and soldered some type metal letters together, to be used when the articles on the bells is printed in Harvey’s Directory.

Wed. Jan.15. __Same work again. To-day an unfortunate schooner was wrecked upon Chit Rocks, but the crew, consisting of six men and a boy, were saved. She was from Poole to the Severn with pipe clay. It blew tremendously from the south. Her bowsprit and foretopmast were carried away, so that she became unmanageable; and, running for the shore, she came stern on upon the rocks. The vessel was soon swamped, but the crew took refuge in the rigging, where they were kept many hours wet, and cold, and without food. After several unsuccessful attempts, a shot, with a rope attached to it, was fired over her. Towards night the wind moderated, and two boats put off and brought the crew ashore half dead. Warm baths and hot broath revived them.

Sidmouth. 1851

Thursday. Jan 16.__The wind has got up, and the gale blows stronger than before. The waves are flying over the vessel, and it is surprising that she holds together.

Spent the evening at Mr. Heineken’s.

Friday. Jan.17.__ A fine morning; but about noon the elements began to get boisterous again.


(2 pages follow with a translation of part of the Lord’s Prayer into ?Chinese)


Sidmouth and Uffculme. 1851.

Sidmouth. Saturday. Jan.18.__Went to Exeter by the Mail, via Ottery, without being turned over. Called at Dr. Oliver’s, and left him some casts of the Roman coin, and some impressions of the 4th bell at Sidmouth. Went over from Northernhay, and took a look at “Danes’ Castle.” It is about 40 paces in diameter. Then went on to Uffculme, taking the rail as far as the Tiverton Junction. Arrived at the School House about four, and found the Joneses well.

Dined with the Clarkes at Bridwell House. They are now all grown up, but I remember them as children, some six and twenty years ago when Mr. Clark, the father, recently dead, lived in Bampton Street, Tiverton, and when my father lived at the top of Peter Street, next to the churchyard.

Thursday. Jan 23.__ The Joneses went over to Tiverton to see Uncle Roberton.

Friday. Jan.24.__ The Joneses started this morning for Leamington, Warwickshire, leaving me to look after 5 children and 4 maidservants for the next 10 days. After the children had had their tea, had a good romp, making noise enough to tear the house down, and gone to bed, I enjoyed a little peace, first having an hour at the piano, and then reading Layard’s Nineveh.

Sunday. Jan.26.__Incessant rain all day.

School House. Uffculme. Jan.1851

Monday. Jan.27.__Had breakfast; fed the cat; fed the pigs; set the children to needlework; nursed the baby; carved for the whole lot of them at dinner; sent them out on the green to play; had them all at tea; then, after half an hour’s riotous play, was somewhat relieved by the appearance of the nursemaid, who took them off to bed. Had a quiet evening alone, at music, Hebrew, and Layard’s Nineveh.

Thursday. Jan.30.__The weather still very wet, but very mild. We have had no winter so far. Finished the first volume of Layard.

Sunday. Feb.2.__ At church twice with the children. Uffculme church is unusually handsome for a small country town. Read the modern reprint of Miles Coverdale’s Bible all evening. This early translation (1535) is by no means so literal as that of the 60 in James the First’s time. The words [Hebrew text] Gen.1.V., he renders “Then of the evenynge & mornynge was made the first daye;” which in the authorised version is - ”And the evening and the morning were the first day:” but which, word for word, is –“And it was evening, and it was morning, day one.” He says –“And so it came to pass;” for [Hebrew text] at the end of verses 7 and 9; but which the authorised version renders more properly and laconically –“And it was so.” Coverdale’s translation is less close than the one we employ, but even in this I think that the rendering might in many places be better.

Monday. Feb.3.__ Mr and Mrs Jones returned from their visit to Leamington and Worcester. Gladly returned the keys into their hands before the children had succeeded in dethroning me and setting up a republic.

Uffculme. Feb.1851

Tuesday. Feb.11.1851.__Took a walk on Uffculme Down.

Wed. Feb.12.__Walked down to the Factory, and returned through the meadows on the south-east side of the river Culm.

Friday. Feb.14.__Finished staining and polishing (to imitate rosewood) Marianne’s small round table.

Sat. Feb.15.__This morning, as I was dressing, I observed a dense smoke rising from some buildings, near the “Three Elms.” It turned out to be some cattle sheds and barns, which were quite consumed, together with five cows. After breakfast I took Marion and went down. Only the walls were standing, and the flames were still raging. The blackened carcases of three cows were still lying in the ruins with their heads and legs burnt off. The fire is supposed to have originated in the carelessness of the boy and great girl who went into the place with a candle before daylight to milk the cows. Came back and wrote a short account for Woolmer’s paper.

Made application to rummage over Uffculme church and tower. Frank Jones (father) and young Hodge went. After going over the church we went up into the tower. There are six bells, all considerably larger than the Sidmouth bells. I think I was told that the largest weighs 24 hundred weight; whereas the largest at Sidmouth is only 13 hundred weight, if I remember right. The four largest bells occupy the whole area of the bell-chamber, and the two smallest swing over the third and fourth. The stays are made of round iron bar, and are only six or eight inches long. We could look right up into the interior of the stone steeple. The thickness of the walls of the tower seems to be somewhat thin. This tower was built by Mr. Marker some four or five years ago.

Uffculme. Feb. 1851.

Monday. Feb.17.__Finished reading Layard’s “Nineveh, and its Remains.” I scarcely remember having read a work that has interested me so much. It has opened a new and extensive field in a hitherto and unknown region; and the observations respecting Assyria in the Old Testament are much elucidated by Dr. Layard’s discoveries. His speculation on the cuneiform character are interesting; but I cannot help thinking that those who have attempted to decipher the inscriptions in this character, have trod upon very uncertain ground. We want a key to this writing – we want a Rosetta Stone. The wedge [character] seems to stand for the letter N: and [character] appears to have the same phonetic power. [character] is equal to A. [character] precedes a proper name. But [character] seems to mean “son of”. [character] stands for “country; and [character] or [character] for city. [character] precedes the name of a divinity, apparently. [character] looks like the sign of the plural.

[character] means King; and seemingly [character] also. The name of the city of Nineveh is portayed in this manner [character] but of the pronunciation of the word so depicted, we are not informed. The name of the builder of the North-west Palace at Nimrond, recently exhumed, stands thus [character]

I should think that a very interesting work, after the style of the “Last Days of Pompeii,” might be written, by taking ancient Assyria for the scene. These palaces should be restored: the manners, customs, religious ceremonies, sacrifices, banquets, and warlike appliances of their occupiers described; and the whole worked up with enough of stirring incident to make it absorbing. Would not this read well?

Uffculme. Feb. & March, 1851.

Sat. Feb.22.__My account of the fire is printed in Woolmer.

Thursday. Feb.27.__Walked to Smithincot (if it is so spelt) then up to Gadden Down; and returned to Uffculme, down the hill by the Three Elms.

Friday. Feb.28__Took a walk up the river to the “Five Fords” and returned through the meadows on the Craddock side of the river.

Sat. March 1. 1851.__Rubbed over the second round ash table that I finished last Thursday staining and polishing.

Took a ramble over Uffculme Down. In some of the county histories I have seen it observed that the continuation of a Roman road from Exmouth passed over this Down. Also, that there existed an old British work, known as the “Pixie Garden” somewhere on it. I have failed to discover any traces of intelligence of either of these remains, whether by examination or by inquiry. Many parts of the Down, however, have been inclosed and brought into cultivation during the last half century.

Sun. March 2. 1851.__Received the Sacrament in Uffculme church. On this occasion I did a thing that is quite unusual although it is enjoined by the Rubric. Last Friday I wrote a brief note to the Vicar (Mr. G. Smith) mentioning by intention of taking the Sacrament. Being a stranger in the parish, it might come more appropriately from me than from an old inhabitant. It was not without some hesitation that I did so, inasmuch as I by no means go with those who join in the present movement in church inovations. It may be said that those who only follow the requirements of the rubric of the Church of England are safe from the extremes which tend to “Puseyism,” which I look upon as one step towards popery; still, there are many practises enjoined by the rubric which have fallen into disuse, and which I have no wish to see revived. With respect to giving notice to the clergyman of this intention to receive the sacrament. I think that if it were the general custom, many persons who go thoughtlessly to the Table, would be taught to reflect more seriously what they were about. It would serve as a check upon their thoughtlessness. There are one or two notoriously profligate young men in Uffculme, but who, nevertheless, profane the Lord’s Table by approaching it. This is done much to the offence of the congregation, and the pain of the vicar. The vicar has his remedy, certainly, but people are afraid to go to extremities. If it were required of these young men that they should go through the formal process of giving notice to the vicar of their purpose, possibly the requirement might be so far beneficial, that it would prevent their running the risk of going to eat and drink their own damnation, and creating a public scandal by their presence; or else, it might teach them to reflect more seriously on what they were doing, and perhaps caution them to mend their ways. Still, I say, I did not do it without hesitation, lest I might seem to be reviving popish customs. The movement that has been going on in the church for the last dozen years or more, I look upon with great apprehension. Sometimes individuals change their oppinions: but upon looking round upon society, it appears to me that a whole nation is becoming revolutionized. The tainture is the more to be feared, since the example is being set by the clergy themselves. All this, I have no doubt, has given encouragement to the pope to name a Roman hierarch in this country. I doubt whether parliament has power to check the pope’s designs. But as the ministry has just resigned, the bill recently introduced to oppose “the Romish Aggression,” falls to the ground, and we must wait to see what new measure may be adopted. It seems to me that we live in extraordinary times. I question whether any earthly power can arrest the progress of revolution. Antichrist seems again to be in the ascendant. We must hope for the best; but I cannot look upon the signs of the times with the indifference that some of my neighbours do. I cannot help foretelling that this will be a Roman Catholic country in fifty years.

Thursday. Mar.6.__Received “Harvey’s Sidmouth Directory.” The March number contains my article on the Sidmouth Bells. There is a complimentary letter to me signed “J.D.S” addressed to me. Who is J.D.S? James Davidson of Secktor.

Friday. M.7.__Took a walk from Uffculme to the Sampford Peverel Railway Bridge, and saw four trains go by. Returned by 5 o’clock.

Monday. Mar.10.__Went to Uffculme Down with the boys and the children to fly Thomas Hodge’s kite.

Tuesday.Mar.11. __Left Uffculme for Sidmouth. Called on Mr.J.Norris and C.J.Willliams, in Exeter.

Wednesday. Mar.12.__Had the first look at my new Map of the Parish of Sidmouth. I reduced the large map, measuring some 7 or 8 feet high, and this had been lithographed from mine, by Spreat of Exeter, for Harvey, the bookseller of Sidmouth. It is very neatly executed. Spent the evening with the Fellowses, now at Fort Cottage.

Th. Mar.13.__Called on Mrs. Creighton, and on Mr. Heineken. Spent the evening at the Le Patourels’, Sidbury Castle. Played 3 games of chess with John Wolcott of Knowle. Saw his young wife for the first time. I remember some girls a dozen years ago when her father, the Archdeacon, Moore Stephens, lived at the vicarage at Otterton.

Sidmouth. March 1851

Sunday. Mar.16.__After church took a walk to the top of Peak Hill to enjoy the view – where I have not been for a year and a half.

Monday. Mar.17.__ This evening we had a small party.

Tuesday. Mar.18.__Called on Sir George Gibbes. Poor old fellow, I found him in bed, where he has been for several months. What between age and paralisis, his days seem to be rapidly shortening. However, he was in good spirits, and he chatted on scientific and political topics for nearly an hour whilst I sat by his bed side.

Thursday. Mar.20.__Coloured some of my maps of Sidmouth, and mounted them in cases.

Friday. Mar.21.__Had tea at Lime Park with the Walkers, and mended the little tumble-head-over-heels toy by charging him with more quicksilver. It rained hard all evening, but about twelve o’clock, when I was coming away, it came down like fury. Mrs. Walker proposed that I should remain the night, but this I laughed at. Margaret and Fred, however, (Mrs. Jenkins and Mrs. Church) set off up stairs to get a bed ready, after all the servants had some time gone to their beds. This they readily did, and came down stairs to announce the fact. This being the case, at the hour being now one in the morning, I went to my new room, and turned in.

Sat. Mar.22.__At half past seven, I was awoke by one of the servants coming in, not knowing I was there. It was still raining hard. We all breakfasted together soon after nine, and at twelve I left them to return home to Coburg Terrace.


Sidmouth. March 1851.

Wed. Mar.26.__Helped and superintended the cutting and trimming of the branches of the elm tree on the Terrace in front of the house.

Sun. Mar.30.__Went this evening to All Saints Church, and heard a very good sermon from Mr. Gibbes.

Monday. Mar.31.__To-day the decennial census of the population is taken. According to the instructions on the paper, the entries concerning myself were, “P.O. Hutchinson – son [of head of family] – 40 [age] – Fund-holder.” In 1841 the population of Sidmouth was 3309. Probably it is now above 4000. The plan now adopted was this: - Towards the 25th of March papers were left by the authorised persons at every house, which would be called for on the 31st. On the morning of the 31st it was required that there should be entered in the spaces or columns, the name, age, relation to head of family, and description of every person of each sex who had slept in the house the night before. This was done, and the paper called for during the day. By some silly persons much opposition was manifested to these requirements. An additional paper was sent to the clergy, for the sake of obtaining some educationary returns; but for some reason or other the clergy raised objections to this demand on the part of the government, and as the filling up of this paper was not inforced by law, as that of the other was, it has been considerably resisted. The population is 3421.

Sidmouth. April 1851.

Tues. Ap.1.__Wood engraving all the morning. Spent the evening at Lime Park.

Wed. Ap.2.__Finished engraving on box wood, Mr. Mortimer’s shilling of Edward VI., to be published in Harvey’s Directory for May. The Reverse side, which I did first, I was 8 hours about; and I was 5 hours at the Obverse side. A practised hand would have done them in half the time. Printed off 20 copies. Called on Mr. Heineken and shewed him the result of my work.

Thurs. Ap.3.__ Returned Mr. Mortimer his coin, and gave him a dozen impressions of the wood engraving.

From Coburg Terrace I watched some workmen burning the furze bushes on the top of Salcombe Hill. By virtue of an act of parliament they are proceeding to enclose the top and steepest part of the sides of the hill; so they are burning the furze, and dividing it by hedges. I am almost sorry to see this wild and romantic place enclosed, over which I have rambled so many scores of times; but as mouths increase, I suppose more land must be cultivated.

Tuesday. April.8.1851.__Went over from Sidmouth to Ottery to see Mr. F.G. Coleridge about the Otterton Cartulary, from which I wish to make some extracts. Saw him, and received the book, on which he justly sets great value. Went into the Church, and made a coloured drawing of the monument of John Coke of Thorne in the North Aisle. The story goes, that this man was murdered by his brother, who coveted the estate. The story seems to be only a fiction. Returned to Sidmouth, also bringing with me the Coleridge Pedigree, done on vellum by a son of Archdeacon Froude, with the arms handsomely emblazoned. The Cartulary is a volume about an inch thick, containing forty-nine leaves, and a mutilated half leaf of vellum, several more having been cut away. It measures seven inches by nine; and is literally “bound in boards,” to wit, beech boards, which are covered with skin, but the one at the end has been split longitudinally through the middle, and one half lost. The whole is now kept in a modern crimson embossed morocco case to protect it from injury. First we have three plain leaves, which have been much scribbled over, subsequently to the death of the last male heir of the Drake family, when the book seems to have fallen into the hands of the servants, and to have been taken little account of. Then we have six leaves devoted to a calendar or almanac, each month occupying a page. The days are not numbered as days of the month, according to the modern plan, but by ides, nones, dominical signs, by saints’ days, and by certain notable events. Amongst these notable events, some few may be quoted. For example, on the 15th of February, we have “Recessit sathanas a domino.” March 23, “Adam creatus est.” April 12, “Rupti sunt fontes aquae.” April 27, “Egressio Noe de archa.” And it may be remarked that there are some uncancelled entries highly offensive to Henry the Eighth. That monarch preremptorily enjoined that St. Thomas and the popes should be struck out from such documents, yet we here still see, untouched and unobliterated, at January 16, Marcelli ppe: May 25, vrban ppe: June 20, leonis ppe: August 2, Stephi ppe: October 7, Marci ppe: October 14, Calysti ppe: December 11, damasi ppe: And December 29, Sti. thome. After the calendar, about folio 17, according to the modern paging, we come to the preamble to the principal matter of the book. I copy it verbatim:- [NB it has not been possible to transcribe this section accurately as a number of characters indicating abbreviations cannot be reproduced on a computer.] “Quoniam in oblivionem hῡana cito labitur memoria idcirco ad et1 nam rei gesta memoriam scriptura [qῡz] ne[n]ia reputatr . hinc est quod frat2 Gaul’ montis Sti mich moach6 qalcumq dum ad tempus in otton custodis offico3 fungetur? qr ples titulos min sufficientes put a prima facie apparebat. Inue4 nat s[uun]ce in mu articlis contrios. volens scire consuetudies et red-5ditus dti loc, ad informatoem psentiu et futuoz instructioem: studuit6 put sua pmisit infermitas omnia ad otton ptninentia in uno congregare, volumine. sicut ex rotuloz et fide dignoz fidelium testamoniis potuit circius pscrittari. Et notandum quod dti redditus paucis exceptis ad quatuor anni terminos persolvuntur s ad f s mich ad ad pasch et ad equis p an C que bis aut semel in ann sol in alio loco istius voluminis describentur. Actum anno incarnationis dnice mo cco lxo. Et qr otton est unu principale manerium in Anglia primo de ea et a libis describemus.”

I have numbered the lines as they stand in the Cartulary by a small figure placed at the end of every one. Thus et, for eter, being part of eternam, by the small figure 1 is shewn to be at the end of the first line of folio 17: frat, the contracted form of frater, the last word of the second line: studuit, to stand at the end of the sixth, and congregare at the end of the seventh line, &c.

All this is fully given at the beginning of the Second Vol. of my Hist. of Sidmouth, bound in green vellum.

On commencing with the Otterton tenants, immediately after this preface, we first have Tholomeus de Otterton, and he appears to have been a large holder, from the plots recorded, and the extent of their superficies.

On the next page, being folio 18, we come to a Sidmouth name. The entry is:- “Adam de Radweie p ij ferli’ ap wolefelle de coqstu suo dim mr.” Adam de Radway for the ferlings of Wolefelle, of his own conquest, half a mark. The ferling was about ten acres: the mark 13s.4d. Wolefelle, or Volfelle, occurs in the deed found at folio 60 of the Cartulary, and which I have copied elsewhere. The next two extries are these:-

“Gaults de pene p.i.ugata tre ap pene q tz p crtam ... di.mr.”

“Item Idem p.i.ferli ap wolfelle de q n hi crtam n dr. .....ijs.iiijd”

Walter de Penne for one vergate of land at Penne, which he holds by deed............. half a mark.

Also the same, for one ferling at Wolfelle, concerning which he has no deed nor draft? .............2s. 4d.

Several members of the family De Penne are mentioned in the Cartulary. I cannot doubt that they took their name from that estate which lies immediately on the west side of Peak Hill, now called Pin. The wooded hill rising just above the farm house is known as Pen, or Pin Beacon Hill.

On folio 19 I see “Katerina de pek dim ug.”Katerina

Ar.ii.acs.fale.di.ij.cleias.v.[ ]....xxxij.”In the margin “[ ]t xx[ ] p op ad p .......ad fest

de Pek, half a virgate, &c. The name of de Pek, which I take to be De Peek, or Peak, of Peak Hill, occurs in several places.

Edward [felont]

On folio 22 the following occurs:-Et qu abbas mont ut por otton uenint, ut a’s de suis, debent hre candelam albam, sal, foragium, ad lectum. et ad eqs. et buscam, et scutellas albas. de consuetudie et puro redditu.”And when the Abbot of the Mount, or Prior of Otterton shall come, or any of his own people, they must have a white candle, salt, forage, to read, and for the horses; and wood, and white plates, according to custom, and as free gifts. Aside – it must have been very convenient to have been an abbot or a prior in that day. This is more strongly shewn in the “Qualiter sit Agendum,” which I have likewise extracted. Folio 24 is headed Yettmetone. This, I believe is a hamlet near Bicton, and now called Yattington. At the next we have Hederlonde, with its tenants. Hederland was attached to Ottery.

At folio 26 we come to the entries referring to Sidmouth. Six pages and five lines are devoted to this dependency of the Priory. These comprise a sort of Sidmouth Directory for the 13th century; and are both amusing and interesting. The whole of this I have copied out entire; for it forms the most ancient, the most copious, and the most complete record relating to this parish which is in existence. The names of many places in the parish are still familiar to us. Few of the names amongst the tenants have endured to the present day. Names die out as well as families. But no wonder, after a lapse of 600 years. That is a long time. At folio 29 is the name Gervasius Forboor. A family called Faber we have among us: but still, there is much difference between Forboor and Faber. Katerina de Pek again occurs on this page. The first name on the next is Roger de Bekewelle, or Bickwell. At folio 30 we have the autograph of Adam de Radway, Lord of the Manor. He seems to have made up the accounts and signed his name. Folio 33 is headed Boddeleg or Budleigh. At 36 Yerticombe, now Yarcombe, and at 43, Mertok, in Somersetshire. With 45 commences a series of deeds, being in most cases, grants of land to various persons, mostly to themselves such persons and their heirs, and at a yearly rent. We look in vain for sales in perpetuum, free of all acknowledgement. All of them in which the name of Sidmouth occurs, or of anybody connected with Sidmouth, I have carefully transcribed. These continue to folio 62, where there is a series of many items, headed “Qualiter sit Agendum,” written in two columns, whilst in the rest of the book, the lines mostly run all across the pages. The exactions here levied would rather startle the community if they were propounded to the inhabitants in the present day. The rest of the volume is also filled up with leases and grants:- Henry the Third’s confirmation of Magna Carta, f.72;- some writs of Edward the Second, f.82;- and various other matters.


Sidmouth. April 1851.

Saturday, April 19.1851__All day and every day transcribing from the Cartulary. This evening at dusk, with something of a headache, went out for some fresh air, and took a walk towards Bickwell Farm. This name in the Cartulary is written Bekewelle: Asherton is Ascerton: Bulverton is Bolvorton: Cotmaton is spelt Cottemeton: but there are several places mentioned the Cartulary which I cannot now identify, and the names of which, as far as I know, are lost. Among others I may mention Bogmoor, Woureland, Dingerewe, or Wingrew, &c. The lane leading from Asherton to Jenny Pine’s Corner, and so onwards, with Bickwell Farm on the left hand, is doubtless the ancient line. This lane runs along the side of the hill at first; and it struck me strange this evening that it is sunk like a ditch six or seven feet below the level of the fields on each side. It is not likely that any persons were ever at the trouble and expense of hollowing this line of way out as we now see it; and yet it is remarkable if the trafic of a great space of time, together with the rush of water that comes down here when copious showers of rain fall, should have been able to produce such an effect. The soil is certainly soft, and great changes may take place in the course of centuries. Still, it is hard to come to a conclusion. We have undoubted record of the existence of Asherton and Bickwell for at least 600 years; and that this line ofroad has occupied the same line, during that period, and probably much longer, we may venture to conclude as something more than likely; and however difficult of assumption the inference may be, I know not how this lane could have been so hollowed, except by the agencies of time, traffic, and streams of water.

Monday, April 28. 1851.__Took a ramble up to Mutter’s Moor, beyond Bickwell Farm, and then on the top of Bulverton Hill, where the view is splendid; and returned down the lanes by Jenny Pine’s Corner. Mutter’s Moor looks very different since they have enclosed several patches of the wild land during the past ten years, and brought it into cultivation. Is it not Mutter’s Moor?

Thursday, May 1. __ May Day, but very unlike May. The Queen opens “The Crystal Palace” and the great exhibition to-day in London.

Thursday, May 8.1851.__Went over to Ottery, and returned the Otterton Cartulary to Mr. Coleridge. The following are amongst the principal abbreviations employed in it:- [Again, it is not possible to reproduce the Latin abbreviation characters.]

[p] for [p] pro

[b] as in Ro[b], for Robert: Robt[] Robertus

[d] or [d] for pence

[s] or [s] s, for shillings

[h] as in Jo[h]s Johannes

[ll] in Wi[ll]s Willielmus

[,] for us final, as Wi[ll]m[.] Willielmus

[pc] precaria, a day’s work

[q] or [q] que or qua or quibus

[k] as in Dollebro[k], f.30, or Fi[k], 31. Vllebroc[k]

[z] final, as t[z] tenet; omnib[z], omnibus; q[z], quibus

[z] final, as rusticoz, rusticorum, ancessoz, antecessorum

ā ē ī ō ū, in most words to indicate contractions

[c] [t] [m] , for cer, ter, mer, &c. as [c]tū, centum.

[;] which Andrew Wright (Int.xiii) says stands for est in some Scotch Records, I observe in one place in the Cartulary, f.64. But some of the abbreviated words, are not immediately obvious, from their brevity, as in [p]t petet, d[z] debit, ñ non, and so on. The mode of spelling is frequently diametrically opposite from what obtained in the Hebrew of old, or what is the principle of the modern short-hand system. In both these modes the vowels are rejected, and the consonants, which are the sounding letters, are retained. Thus o[i]a stands for omnia, o[i]es for omnes, c[o]is for communis; but the second would be better conveyed if an m or an n found a place in the contracted word. I think that o[m]a would spell omnia, in the shortened form, better than o[i]a: and I should prefer o[m]s to o[i]es for omnes, and c[m]is to c[o]is for communis. But doubtless the ancient scribes knew better than I do. There are no stops in the Cartulary but the dot, which is used in other ways besides to close a sentence; and a stop like a semicolon turned upsidedown, which appears to occupy the place of a comma. It only occurs, however, in a few places. The general absence of stops, even at the end of sentences, and the employment of small letters instead of Capital letters, whether at the beginning of paragraphs, or for proper names, often render passages at first obscure, that otherwise would not be so. The use of the hyphen at the end of a line, when a word was divided, seems to have been but little used; yet a small scratch of the pen, indicating the hyphen, is seen at f. 17, l.5, to divide red-ditus, at f.62, l11, to divide def-fend[e], and at other places. The i in the MS is never dotted; but a similar little stroke over letters i is frequently found. This is now and then a great assistance; for sometimes six or eight perpendicular strokes are met with in a word standing for some or any combination of m, n, u, v, i; and in the midst of these strokes, which are all formed alike, and look like a mass of confusion, the detection of what stands for the dot of an i will often form a clue to the solution of a doubtful word. Another obstruction to easy reading occurs in the great resemblance between the c and the t. Where these letters are found side by side, it sometimes happens that little or no difference can be detected between the shape of the one and the shape of the other. The same observations apply to the similar formation of R, B and k, as well as to f and long f. It appears to me, &c.

These are some of the most prominent of the peculiarities belonging to the Cartulary. Yet he who has mastered folio 17, so as to be able to read it with facility, would find himself wholly at a loss to decypher folio 80, or again, folio 82. The writing at all these is totally different in character, evidently traced by different hands, and probably at distant periods. The non use of the diphthong in the genetive cases of feminine nouns whose nominative cases end in a, causes but little difficulty when the fact is known. It is easy to see the muse means musae, geste, gestae; marie, Mariae; and so on. To the historian of this neighbourhood, the Otterton Cartulary is the most ample, the most connected, and the most valuable record to which he can have recourse.

Tuesday, May 13.__Took a ramble along the cliff through the fields to the top of Salcombe Hill, to see the progress of enclosing. Not been this way for a year and a half. Some men were grubbing up the roots of the furze bushes recently burnt. On the flat summit of the hill I see the plough has been at work for the first time.

Sidmouth. May, 1851

Wed. May 14.__At a party at our neighbour’s Mrs. Creighton at No.1. Coburg Terrace.

Friday. May 16.__At a ball, music, and supper at the Le Patourels’, Sidbury Castle House.

Sat. May 17.__Finished mounting my stag’s head, which I procured last December the 7th. at Lord Clifford’s, Ugbrook, near Chudleigh, and fixed it up in the hall.

Tuesday, May 20.__Cleaned my flute and polished the keys. Spent the evening with Mr. Heineken.

Wed. May 21.__Received my lenses for a Galilean telescope from Chadburn, Sheffield – but they have not followed my instructions in grinding them. This won’t do.

After breakfast took a walk to Mutter’s Moor, Bulverton Hill; and from the ridge, enjoyed the view northwards and wastwards, over and beyond Ottery towards the Blackdown Hills in one direction, and towards Dartmoor in the other.

Thursday. May 22.__Etched the Hutchinson Arms on the mother-of-pearl of one side of my case of 3 lenses, received yesterday from Chadburn, Sheffield, and the crest on the other. I used nitric acid, which seemed to answer tolerably well; but diluted it with 4 or 5 times its bulk of water, finding this quite strong enough, - first having laid a common etching ground. On the arms the acid remained 10 minutes – on the crest 15, the thermometer standing at 64. After cleaning it off, I filled the lines with black paint, finding some difficulty in making it remain there.

Friday, May 23.__After breakfast took a rambling walk to the top of the inland end of Peak Hill, on the west side of Mutter’s Moor.

Saturday, May 24.__Took a walk to Mutter’s Moor – I believe it is Muttles NoMoor, and notMutter’s Moor, as many people pronounce it – and then to the summit of Bulverton Hill. This last hill must be higher than many in the neighbourhood. The cone of High Peak is seen rising over Peak Hill; and the horison line of the sea, is much above the flagstaff on High Peak. This will make Bulverton Hill perhaps about 600 feet high; for High Peak is 511.

Mon. May 26.__Finished the case and the mounting of my ordnance map of part of Devonshire, No XXII.

Tuesd. May 27.__Went with mother in a carriage to pay some visits: - on the Walkers at Lime Park; the FitzGeralds at Mount Edgar; the Lukes at Primley Hill; the Hunts at Court Hall, Sidbury; and the Le Patourels, at Sidbury Castle House. Returned through Sidford, over the river, into Salcombe Parish. There is a tradition that Charles the Second, when he was a fugitive, in passing through this part of the country, stopped and slept the night in Sidford. I observed the dates on the three oldest houses in the place. In the street running north and south, leading from Sidmouth to Sidbury, there are two houses close together on the west side; one having the date 1640, cut in stone on the chimney, and the other 1633. Some have pointed to one of these as likely to be the house: but on the south side of the street leading to the bridge over the Sid, and about half way down, there is a house bearing the date 1574, occupied by a baker (from which we have our brown bread) and this is the most confidently believed to have been the one in question. - No! Read the “Boscobel Tracts.”

Wed. May 28.__Took a turn on Salcombe Hill to look at the alterations. The hedges are finished, and a number of men were engaged in burning the furze bushes, grubbing up roots, and in “subduing the land.” The Race-course on the top of the hill is cut up into various enclosures; and hedges bound the road all the way to Salcombe. On making my way to the edge of the cliff, I passed the conical block of stone which I remember more than 20 years ago, lying in a line from the edge of Maynard’s Hill towards Portland, and standing about four feet high. I have sometimes observed this stone look quite polished and shiny with oil, rubbed out of the sheep’s wool; for the sheep are given to collecting round it, and rubbing against it. Close to the edge of the cliff there is an acre of ground recently belonging to the crown, on which, during Napoleon’s time, a signal staff and telegraph were erected. The electric telegraph and the use of steam have rendered these things useless, and the spot of land has been sold. I was told that Charles Farrant, upholsterer of Sidmouth, gave £22 for it. It is now in potatoes. On the Sidmouth slope of the hill, near the cliff, some men were skimming off the turf and burning it: so I amused myself for some time feeding their fires.

Thurs. May 29.__ Restoration of King Charles. Had up the flag again.

Frid. May 30.__After breakfast went up to Lime Park. Made a coloured drawing of the house from the hedge near the road, taking the front at right angles, point blank, - the only place I could get a sight of it, the trees are grown so much. Lunched there, and gave my morning’s work to Mrs. Walker.

Sat. May 31.__After breakfast walked over the Pin Beacon, or Pen Beacon Hill, being the south-western spur of Peak Hill. I think it must be nearly twenty years since I was over on this hill. At the extreme point, where the beacon fire was lighted, there is a mound, like a tumulus. Whether the faggots

Sidmouth, May & June, 1851.

of wood were heaped up and lighted, or whether the alarm was given by any other process of illumination, there is no evidence to show. I dug down a few inches with the point of my stick on this mound, to see if I could discover any traces of charcoal; but I failed to distinguish anything of the sort. I regretted I had no spade with me. There are no marks of any stone building here, as at the Beacon Hill rising over Harpford Wood. I doubt whether the trees on Pin Beacon can have been planted within 50 years – at least, the trunks of many of them are more than a foot or 15 inches in diameter, which bespeaks considerable age. This hill may be about 550 feet high. I merely judge so by remarking that the horison line of the sea, appeared 30 or 40 feet above the top of High Peak, which is 513. Nearly 100 yards or so north from the beacon is another mound, having the appearance of a tumulus. Also 200 or 300 years east of this, on the small promontory, I observed a slight rising like a tumulus. I have laid these down in my copy of the Ordnance Map, number XXII.

Sidmouth, June 1851.

Tuesday, June 3.__Went down to the beach and made a coloured sketch of the Limekilns. I have long been intending to do this, as I expect that before long these limekilns will tumble into the sea. There has recently been another large fall of the cliff between them and Sidmouth.

Wed. June 4.__Had up the flag in compliment to Miss Levien’s wedding to-day. Went to the ball and supper this evening at the Leviens’. When the bride and bridegroom went away this morning, they left the keys of their trunks behind – concerning which there has been much laughing in Sidmouth.

Fri. June 6._­_At a party at Mrs. Walker’s, Lime Park. My! how hot the rooms were. Home between 12 and 1.

Sat. June 7.__Up between 7 and 8. Got on the coach and went to Exeter to turn over some books at the Institution. Mr. T. Norris introduced me there.

Sund. June 8__ At St. Sidwell’s church. Walked to Heavitree and called on Sibella Jones, who is staying with the Lunns, formerly of Tiverton.

Mond. June 9.__At the Institution all day.

Tues. June 10.__Margaret Jenkins and Sam. alias her brother the Rev. S. Walker, of St. Enoder, came in to fetch the girls from Crediton school. Sam. went to Oxford, and Margaret returned to Sidmouth, taking the girls with her. Had tea with the Lunns and Miss Jones at Heavitree.

Exeter, June 1851.

Wed. June 11.__Called on Mr. Norris and gave him two photographic facsimiles from folio 17 and folio 80 of the Otterton Cartulary; and gave some sugarplum to his charming little daughter.

Thurs. June 12. __ Ferretted out the site of King Athelstan’s Palace. Turn out of Queen Street about 20 yards down Paul Street; and there is a court-yard called “Athelstan Court.” Not a vestige of the Palace remains, I was told by Mr. Algar, who lives there. He is a bit of antiquarian, and has had a large sign-board painted and fixed up, bearing the words “Athelstan Court” by way of perpetuating the royal name. By the bye, I like his own name. The famous gigantic and athletic Earl of Devon, of Saxon times, was called Algar, or Olgar, or Orgar.

Frid. June 13.__Had a good long spell in the Library of the Exeter Institution, transcribing from several works. Dr. Oliver, by mistake, has got William Uddewin, instead of Rad, or Radulphus, as one of the priors of Otterton, though he refers to folio 52 of the Otterton Cartulary, as his authority – which authority reveals his error. After the name Simon Guarin is the date 1474, evidently a misprint for 1374, see his Monasticon, p.248 & 249. In several other parts of his Monasticon, misprints occur where he has made extracts from the Cartulary. However, it is astonishing how easy it is to make errors in transcribing old deeds. My own small practice in that line assures me of this.


Exeter, June 1851.

Tuesday June 17.__Went down to Heavitree, or rather Wonford, and called on Mr. Pitman Jones. Found him in, and had half an hour’s chat with him on antiquarian and other subjects. Then went on to find the quarry where they dig the red Heavitree stone, once so much used in building, but now almost entirely superceded by the Babbicombe limestone. Witnessed a blast of the rock, which was very well performed. I was told in the quarry that the stone was sold in the rough on the spot at 2s.3d the cart-load of about a ton and a half.

Went back to Heavitree through the Wonford lanes, and had tea with the Lunns and Sibella Jones. Got back again to Exeter early.

Wed. June 10.__Waterloo Day. I hope Bingham has hoisted my flag at Sidmouth.

Thursday June 19.__Whilst in the Library at the Institution to-day, I was introducd by Mr. Gray to Dr. Scott, of the Deaf and Dumb Institution, who asked me to come down and see his photographs. Went down after I had finished at the Library and had tea with him and Mrs. Scott. Also with Dr. Halle of Chudleigh, who is compiling a history of that place. He is a little man with spectacles and sandy hair, put back behind his ears. By his turn of mind, I should say he were rather a philosopher or a a metaphisian than a historian. But we shall see.

Exeter, June 1851

Friday, June 20.__This morning as I was going down High Street something occurred worth recording. The bells of the various churches were ringing, and a number of flags were displayed. The cause of these manifestations did not at the moment occur to me, so I hailed a man and asked him what it meant. “Oh Sir,” said he, “it is the anniversary of the Queen’s ascension.” He meant to say accession.

Going past the offices of Woolmer’s Exeter Gazette I encountered Mr. Barnett Blake, one of the Editors, with whom I got into conversation, when up came Mr. Woolmer himself, with whom also I had a chat. Then went on to the Institution, and made some extracts from Domesday Book and the Saxon Chronicle.

At 2 o’clock I called on Mr. Norris. He was out, but I saw Mrs. Norris and their nice little girl, who says she is nine years and three quarters old, and is very anxious to be ten.

Saturday, June 21. __ Longest Day! Spent the evening with the Grays, and had a downright set to at music.

Sun. June 22.__At St. Sidwell’s church in the morning. Charles Band, who was ordained last Sunday, assisted in the service.

In the afternoon at Heavitree church, where I heard an ultra “high church” sermon. The pith of what was insisted on throughout the sermon, was blind obedience to the clergy. Everything was “obey” the authority of “the church.”

I enquired of old Tothill the pew opener if there were in the new church any monument to the name of Hutchinson. He told me yes; that the original slab recording the deaths of the Judge and his wife, my grandfather and grandmother, were at the east end of the north aisle, but that it was covered with the boarded flooring of the pews, so that I could not see it. He said that when the present new church was built, about five or six years ago, it was determined that there should be no burying within the walls in future. It was even determined to fill up all the old vaults. With a view to sanatory purposes, they collected all the bones found in them, and those of my ancestors among the rest, and buried them in a large and deep pit dug for the purpose in the south-west corner of the churchyard, so low down as that they are never likely to be disturbed. The tombstones against the west wall I find as I saw them last; but they have put a new covering to the wall, having removed the thatch.

Tuesday, June 24.__Obtained C.F. Williams’s six lithographic views at Port Madoc in Wales, which I had before bespoken.

Wednesday, June 25.__To-day is the first day of the “Synod” in Exeter. It was a question whether the Bishop was not active in opposition to the law by proposing the course he has adopted; but the learned in the law have alleged that though he has a right thus to call his clergy about him, he would have no right to pas canons. Being in Exeter at this time, I would have got into the Chapter House and have heard the deliberations, but none but the delegated clergy of the Diocese have been admitted. I have been told that two reporters for some of the London papers have come down, and that they presented themselves for admittance this morning, but it was refused. Many persons have been very much opposed to the whole proceedings; some thinking this manifestation of church doctrine and discipline wholly unnecessary; and others conceiving it to be particularly inopportune at a time when much agitation has disturbed the minds of the community; whilst others, again, look upon it with dislike and suspicion, as it has been promoted by the high church, or Tractarian party. An attempt has been made to get up a procession of several dozen donkeys, on whose backs were to be seated persons dressed in clerical habits, one of them with a mitre on his head. The intention was, to parade these through the streets and the cathedral yard; but it has failed, either because they could not collect donkeys enough, though agents had been sent for the purpose to some of the neighbouring towns or else, as some one told me, because people were afraid to ride them, for fear of getting taken into custody by the police. The project has caused a good deal of laughing round the city.

Exeter, June 1851

Friday 27th June.__Went to see the Horticultural Show on Northernhay; & remained there for a couple of hours. The weather splendid, and most immensely hot at present. There was a tolerable exhibition of flowers, many of them very fine and very pretty. However, I am not sure whether the prettiest flowers were not walking about. Amongst the crowd I met my cousin Peter Roberton, come over for the occasion, and much surprised to see me. He left his wife, two children, and father, at Tiverton.

Sat. June 28.__As they accept any donation for the Library of the Institution at Exeter, I gave them to-day my Geology of Sidmouth, Guide to the Landslip, 3rd Edit. and one of my maps of Sidmouth Parish, coloured and mounted.

Sunday. June 29.__Had an early dinner with the Rev. and Mrs. Warren, and boy and girl; and then we went to the afternoon service at Heavitree church. We had a semi-popish sermon again. I do not know what infatuation has siezed upon our young clergy; but they seem very fond of playing with edged tools. Called at the Lunns, and then went again to Mount Le Grand, and had tea with the Warrens.

Monday. June 30.__Went and had a look at Mr. Gard’s lawn and grounds, at Rougemount Castle, I think his residence is called. As I had no friend at leisure to take me, I went and presented myself for admission; for I had heard that any “respectable person” on giving their name at the door would be admitted. On ringing the bell and giving the footman my card, he politely told me I might enter and walk about wherever I liked. The lawn comprises the only remaining part of the ancient ditch or foss, sweeping around under the south-west wall of the Castle. I was surprised at the depth and width of the foss. It is now dry, of course. It is dotted with venerable trees, and covered with fine grass, beautifully kept, and closely mown. The place is certainly very picturesque. After walking about in different directions to admire the undulations, I ascended the tower at the Northernhay side, and commanded a fine view towards St. Davids and the Exwick Hills.

Mr. Gard has been one of the fortunate ones in his passage through life. I have been told that his father was a clothier of Exeter, but by some mishap lost his earnings before he died. This son was first a clark in the Bank of old Sparks the Quaker; thence he went to London, where he soon made a moderate fortune. He then paid a visit to Devonshire, and some chance took him down to Cornwall. Here he was persuaded to invest some money in a mining speculation. Unlike most mining speculations, it succeeded beyond expectation; so that the original £1 share rose to be worth £300 to £500 apiece. This soon made his riches flow in at a great pace; and how he is the owner of the best residence in Exeter. I believe he has two brothers now in trade in the city.

Exeter. June 1851.

Tu. July 1. 1851.__After spending the morning at the Institution, I went out and looked at the Pocomb Quarries, where I had not been before. There are two quarries close together, one belonging to the Earl of Devon, and the other to the Revd. Mr. Somebody, who lives close by. I was told that the price of the stone on the spot is the same as the Heavitree stone, namely, two shillings and three pence the cart-load, carrying about a ton and a half. The men working there knew nothing of its geological position; and were incredulous when I talked of its having an igneous origin.

Th.July 3.__ Walked out to Heavitree, and paid a P.P.C. visit at Mrs. Lunn’s, as I mean to get back to Sidmouth next Saturday. Called on Dr. Oliver, and had half an hour’s talk with him. He showed me a copy of Mr. Cotton’s ”Graphic and Historical Sketch of Totnes,” of which I had heard, whilst it was in preparation. I am rather disappointed, having expected something more. The list of the Vicars of Totnes, which Dr. Oliver, with some labour had made out for him, Mr. Cotton remarks in a private letter to Dr. Oliver, dated May 5. 1851, and which is now before me, “was inadvertenly [sic] omitted, although the MS. was in the hands of the publisher. And,” he continues, “I very stupidly did not detect the omission when the proof sheets were submitted for my inspection.” I gave Dr. Oliver a facsimile of one of the folios of the Otterton Cartulary – that one headed “De Natiuis de Sydm[] Cottemeto[] et Bolvorto[]” - traced off, and then multiplied according to the photographic process, with sensitive paper. I explained that I had some thought of proposing it as a way of giving exact copies of ancient MSS, instead of having them lithographed; although, on reconsideration I began to think the process would be too tedious. I mentioned that I contemplated a history of Sidmouth; but that as I wished to do it thoroughly, and if possible properly, (if I did it at all,) I meant to take my time, and be in no hurry. I told him my wish to discover the original deed of William the Conqueror, by which Sidmouth was conveyed to St. Michael’s Mount, in Normandy, but he doubted whether I should ever succeed in so doing: and I wished also to find out when Sidmouth Church was built and thought I might find some entry in the Registers of the Bishops of Exeter throwing some light on this point, but here he doubted again, not recollecting any mention of the sort in the Registers, though he has gone over them several times. However, he encouraged me to go on; and said he was glad I was fond of antiquarian pursuits. He also offered to assist me in any way in his power.

Fri. Jul.4.__ Gave a photographic facsimile of folio 17 of the Otterton Cartulary to Mr. Pitman Jones.

Sidmouth, 1851

Friday, July 11.__ Went into Sidmouth church, where I found Wheaton, the sexton. He told me that the Rev. W. Jenkins, father of the present vicar, built the north gallery, but not the north aisle. That, at that period there was an old stone pulpit, standing against the south columns of the archway going into the chancel; that this was removed, and a wooden pulpit on legs or supports was put up in the middle of the archway, so that people passed under it in going to the communion table: and that when this was taken down, the present pulpit, on the north side of the arch, was made. He said that he recollects a carved wooden screen across this part of the church, with the royal coat of arms over it, and an angel or cherub, with a trumpet, on each side, and the x commandments; and scrolls, one on each side, bearing respectively, the words “Fear God,” and “Honour the King:” that this screen was taken down about 1803 or 1804. That the clock in the tower was put up, and the present clock face, in 1808. That there used to be a small south transept, with a gallery containing three or four seats, occupied by the Cornish family. That in 1822, a year after the present vicar came to the living, the south aisle and gallery were built. The lower part of the south wall of the church was taken away, the upper part being kept up by supports, and the present series of clustered columns was made by Kingwell, out of Beer stone. Between the second and third columns, and close to the third from the tower, stood the old south porch. He further told me that he remembers an open archway from the

Sidmouth & Hemyock

chancel to the north aisle. This was the usual place of the old confessional: but he spoke of it as a passage through. He likewise recollects an opening from the chancel, behind the south column, into the former south transept. His mistake. They were hagioscopes revealed in 1859. The church has so few architectural features, that it is difficult to judge of its age. The architecture of the tower is about the time of Henry the Seventh or Eighth. Dr. Oliver observed to me the other day, that probably the east end was much older than this. If so, the angular buttresses against the north-east and south-east corners are of subsequent addition. Indeed, the masonry of these two buttresses appears of a better description than that of the outside of the chancel.

Thursday, July 17.__Went with Mr Heineken over to Hemyock from Sidmouth to try and find Hemyock Castle, not having been aware till lately, that the remains of a Norman Castle existed in this neighbourhood. After passing through Honiton and Combe Rawley, and ascending the hill beyond, we had a fine view of Dumpdon Camp, on a high conical hill. On arriving at Hemyock, two round towers, overgrown with ivy, soon attracted attention. Mr. Heineken took photographic views of these, having brought his camera and some prepared paper with him, whilst I set to work with my sketch-book. The plan of the castle is a square, of about 60 yards on each side, with a round tower at each corner, and a round tower in the middle of each side between the corners. The whole was surrounded by a mote, still mostly remaining. The walls are from 3 to 4 feet thick, where they are in existence, and the round towers about 20 in diameter, from outside to outside. The principal gateway, which is in the middle of the east wall, is immediately opposite the west door of the parish church, and not above 40 or 50 yards from it, a small stream of water flowing between. The gateway has a pointed arch, flanked by two round towers; and the place remains where the portcullis descended. A modern farm house has been built just within this gateway; an old doorway, evidently taken from part of the ruins of the castle, has been built into the house. It is of rude design and execution; and it is remarkable that the sides and arched top are of granite. There is no granite to be had nearer than Dartmoor. I learn that this door moulding was brought from a distance. The area within the outer walls and the towers is now an orchard. The citadel, or principal part of the building, once probably occupied the centre. There are stony mounds, overgrown with grass, about the orchard; and these are seemingly the remains of former erections now ruined. It is strange that none of the county histories make any particular mention of this castle; and I heard of it only by chance. On returning we visited Dunkeswell Abbey. Little remains of this but ruined walls, and pointed gables overgrown with ivy.

Sidmouth. July 1851.

Monday, July 21.__ Spent the evening at Mrs. Walker’s at Lime Park, where I met the Elphinstones of Livonia, and the FitzGeralds of Mount Edgar.

Tuesday, July 22.__Spent the evening and Mr. Heineken’s; and had a spell of music, cum eo et filia.

Thursday, July 24__Made a frame 12x8 for taking positives by the photographic process.

Tuesday, July 29.__Made my first photographic positives, being duplicates of a view of Sidmouth from the west end of the beach.

Thursday, July 31.__Took two rubbings from the small brass of Henry Parsonius in Sidbury church. Went on to Sand, and made three sketches of some of the old sculptures there.

Friday, August 1.__Walked over to Salcombe church, and made a coloured sketch of the interior. The stone altar-piece, put there, as I have heard, by, or through the influence of some ladies since turned Roman catholics (the Misses Morris, late of Sid-cliff) has just been removed, and a massive woodden table put there instead.

Monday, Aug. 4.__Started for Hemyock again, with Mr. Heineken, driven by Wellington Smith. We first made for Dunkeswell Abbey, after passing through Honiton, where we took two photographic views: then we proceeded to Hemyock Castle, where we took two or three more. Mr. Heineken returned to Sidmouth, but I stayed where I was. Slept at Hemyock: took a rough plan of the Castle and adjoining

Hemyock and Uffculme. Tuesday Augt. 5, 1851

land: went into the church, where there is nothing worthy of record, except the old font of Purbeck stone, about the recent exhumation of which, nearly under one of the columns on the north side of the nave, the village schoolmaster has much to say; and the stained glass in the head of the window at the east end of the south aisle, executed, as I was told, by the Misses Simcoe of Woolford Lodge; and the fact that there is no monument more than a hundred years old within its walls. Admired the great yew tree in the churchyard, and was told a story about the curate who planted the small one to the south of it some thirty years ago. If I had Hemyock Castle I would soon make a pretty place of it. I would clear away the ugly and dirty farm buildings, and the mass of apple trees, by which it is so choked up; and repair and restore the towers and battlements of the castle itself. I am surprised that the owner should neglect it so much.

Hired a vehicle, and went over to Uffculme, preferring the route over Hackpen Hill, for the sake of the view. Went to the Schoolhouse and found the Joneses well.

Thursday, Augt. 7.__Mr. Caines took me a drive in his gig.

First we went through Culmstock, and up the high hill to the Beacon. The Beacon is a stone building, about 12 feet diameter, with walls nearly two feet thick. There is a


doorway on the south side, and slits or loophiles on the east and west. In side there are several blocks of masonry like seats, built up from the ground. The perpendicular wall rises about eight feet high: then there is a slightly projecting string-course: and then the building is arched over, with a hole at the top about two feet in diameter. The arch is of rubble work, with the edges turned to the centre; and these are cased with mortar, and stones laid on flat. From this small edifice, in a northerly direction, over the wild and heath-covered summit of the hill, there runs a straight ridge, pointing to a tower on a hill some miles off, and having much the appearance of a British or Roman road: a similar also runs from the Beacon in an easterly direction; but they are soon lost where they dip down into the cultivated grounds. What the age of this building may be I am unable to learn.

From hence we went along the top of the hills till we came to the Wellington Monument – a triangular obelisk on a base, erected in honour of the “Iron Duke.” At a distance it looks round, and very ugly; but its appearance improves on a

and Exeter

nearer approach. It is built of chert rubble cased with well-dressed and squared blocks of sandstone. There is a staircase within that leads to the top. The eastern angle at the summit has been struck with lightning, and many of the stones knocked away. From this monument the views all around, but especially towards Wellington and Taunton, are fine and extensive.

Leaving this spot, we descended into the valley, and passing through Culm Davey, and Culmstock, we returned to Uffculme.

Friday, Augt. 8.__Left Uffculme for Exeter. The five little Joneses, from Marion to Agnes, accompanied me to the station, and saw me start.

Sat. Augt. 9.__Passed most of the day at Mr. Ralph Barnes’s office at Palace Gate, looking over Bishop Bronescombe’s Register, to see what I could find relating to Sidmouth.

Sunday 10.__At St. Lawrence’s Church, on the High Street, Exeter. In the afternoon went down to Countess Weir Village and dined with the O’Briens, who have removed thither from Whipton. Returned through the fields by the river. Remembering that when I was with Mr. Putnam Jones last month, he told me that in the cottage garden, on the site of St. James’s Priory, there used to be an old stone coffin lying on the ground. After some enquiry I came to it. But it is broken in two; and the two halves are turned bottom upwards; and are now used as two steps going up to a new iron pump. “To what base uses, &c.”

Exeter. August. 1851.

Thursday. Augt. 14.__Went to Crediton to see some girls, daughters of Sidmouth friends, who are there at Miss Langworthy’s school. Found them very comfortable and made them perfectly happy by giving them plenty of kisses and sugar plumbs. Where is the lady, child or woman, who would not be happy with kisses and sugar plums? Went into the church, which is large, old, and moderately plain. The painting at the east end, representing Moses and Aaron, supporting the two tables of stone, with a perspective view of the interior of a temple behind them, needs no words of commendation – take it in what sense you will. In a room over one of the south-east projections in the edifice I was shown some armour, jack-boots, and sword of Cromwell’s time. There is also an ancient alms-box, the cover being made like a funnel, or rather semi-spherical cup, with a slit at the bottom. On the floor in the south aisle, near the east end, there is a slab with the date M[?]LXXXII, in unusual characters, of which I regret I did not take a facsimile.

Friday, Augt.15.__Walked over Marypole Head, and found Stoke Hill camp; but which is nearly obliterated. Enjoyed the view, and made a coloured sketch of Exmouth and the river from this point.

Exeter. August 1851

Sat. Augt.16.__Called on the Grays. Went with Mr. Gray to look at some old houses - at Mr. Every’s Office, the ceiling handsome – Mr. Pye’s house, Gandy Street, the panelling good - and the old room, now used as a Free Mason’s Lodge.

Sun. Aug.17.__ At St. Sidwell’s.

Tu. Aug.19.__ Walked to the Quay – to St. James’s Priory – to Heavitree, where I made a sketch of the church – to Mount Le Grand, and back to Exeter through St. Sidwell’s.

Wed. Aug.20.__Took a walk upon the Exwick Hills. The view towards Exeter is fine.

Th. Augt. 21.__Met Mary Roberton and Mrs. Mackay (formerly of Sidmount, Sidmouth) who came into Exeter from Chudleigh for the day.

Fri. Aug.22.__Left Exeter for Sidmouth.

Mon. Aug.25.__All day making photographs-positives. Made 11.

Tues. Aug.26.__Same work. Mounted my Ordnance Map, No.21.

Spent the evening at Lime Park.

Wed. Aug.27.__Made six more photographs. Mounted my old Geological Map of England and Wales.

Friday, Aug.29.__Went to Exeter from Sidmouth by the mail – the fee-mail, as I jocosely called it some time ago in Woolmer’s paper, owing to the fees which the coachman and guard looked for from the passengers.

Saturday, August 30.1851.__Went from Exeter to London by one of the “Excursion Trains.” The cheapness of the fare – being only one third of the ordinary fare to London, whereas this comprised the return also –

London, August & September, 1851

Induced great numbers to go. We started at half past 8, instead of 8, for the crowd and confusion were immense, and laboured on very slowly, stopping at almost every station to take up more people. It was not until we had passed Bristol that we ceased taking up, and proceeded at a better pace. We were 10 minutes going through the Box Tunnel, as I proved by my watch, the usual time being about 5. At Swindon we were let out for refreshment – and a strange turn out it was. I tried to count the number of carriages, but found it very difficult, the train was so long. I made out above 30. We did not get to Paddington till 8, though we were led to believe that 4 would have been the hour. It was now getting dark, and the confusion was indescribable. The railway officials omitted the care and attention usually paid to passengers on other occasions. The luggage was thrown out anywhere, and people had to find it as they could. After a deal of searching with lanterns I found my carpet-bags lying in the mud; and even my cloths, inside, as I discovered afterwards, were wet through. There were lots of women there, who were strangers in London, and who had lost their friends, and unable to find their boxes, in extreme tribulation. Some of these I assisted out of their difficulties but I had much ado to get out of my own. Loud and vehement were the complaints which the passengers raised against the railway officials at being treated in such a way.

Sunday. Aug.31.__Went to All Saints church, Paddington, having ensconced myself in Stanley Street – a new street, scarcely finished.

London. September 1851.

Monday. Sep.1.__Good morning, Mr. Partridge. Went to Bow Street Police office to see Henry O’Brien, and to my surprise also fell in with his 3 brothers.

Tuesday. Sep.3.__Called on Mr. & Mrs. Richards at Bayswater. Then went to Hungerford Market, where I took steamer for the Tunnel. The River was crowded. Went into the Tunnel, and a strange place it certainly is. I was in it while it was making in 1836. They have got organs and shops and stalls, and sundry anomalous attractions down there. The fee is one penny! and cheap enough.

Then went to the Tower. Besides seeing the usual sights, my object to-day was, to enquire for the Record Office, and find out what are the conditions of searching the MSS. I was directed to a door in the south wall of a building, over which were painted the words “Record Office,” surmounted by the Royal Coat of Arms. I ascended a winding staircase in a turret, and found one of the keepers in a room. He told me that any of the records could be searched, on payment of one shilling, as the usual fee. The same fee is demanded for each separate document. Ink is not allowed to be used, lest any accident should happen to the record to be copied. Pencil, or some similar means, is alone permitted. It is in contemplation, however, to throw the office open gratuitously; and the applicant will then be admitted by an order from some authorised person. The Gents. Mag. for this month mentions this.

London. Sep. 1851

Wednesday. Sep.3.__Went to the “Crystal Palace” for the first time. A wonderful place it is, certainly. There is no deception here. All the articles are genuine, and the very best of their sort that the ingenuity of man has produced. And worthy of much admiration indeed, are the works which the heads and the hands of frail mortals have been able to produce. It is vain to try and describe, or even to particularise, there is so much to dwell on that is either beautiful or excellent. I was there for seven hours, and wearied I was, though so much interested. It is possible to get tired of pleasure. I must go again. Then went to Gray’s Inn Square, and spent the evening with the O’Briens.

Th. Sep.4.__Went to the Tower. Found Mr. Hardy at the Record Office, spent several hours at some writs of Edward the Third relating to Sidmouth. These are printed in Rymer’s Foedera, but I was not content at having them at second hand – I chose to go to the fountain head.

Fri. Sep.5.__At the Tower for four hours. Took boat to Westminster Bridge. They have done a great deal to the tower of the new Houses of Parliament since I last looked at the building. Went into the Abbey; but only had time for a glance round. Took omnibus, or bus, as it is generally called, and returned to Paddington.

Sat. Sep.6.__Seven hours at the Exhibition. Took it more deliberately to-day, and perhaps enjoyed it more. So vast a collection requires repeated looking at, and some consideration.

Sun. Sep.7.__At the Lock Hospital church; and in the evening at the Bayswater Chapel. Dined with Mr, and Mrs. Richards in Chapel Place.

London. Sep.1851.

Mon. Sep.8.1851.__Finished my research for the present at the Record Office in the Tower. The government gives the clerk in attendance the discretionary power of compounding for payment with persons who go to the office. One shilling for each roll searched or copied is the established fee; but Mr. Duffus Hardy compounded with me; and for copying eleven writs of Edward the Third from different rolls, I paid the government five shillings. A receipt for the money was given me. These Rolls are literally rolls. They are skins of vellum sown together by a sort of large “herring-bone” stitch. It is the ancient sowing. The pieces of vellum are about 10 or 12 inches broad, and upwards of two feet long on an average. They are sown together at the ends; and then this long piece or strip, like a great broad bibbon, is rolled up, labelled, and tied with a string. As some of the rolls contain perhaps 30 pieces of vellum, such ones are four or five inches in diameter. They are for the most part written on only one side; but in some instances on both.

Tuesday. Sep.9.__Having always understood that my great-grandfather, Governor Hutchinson, was buried at Croydon, to-day I had the curiosity to take the rail and go down to inquire. But I could get no intelligence of him. I could not learn that any monument existed to his memory; although, curious enough, the names of other Hutchinsons are preserved here. A Mrs. Hutchinson, wife of a Thomas Hutchinson, died there in 1797, aged 48. I think her tomb is in the churchyard on the south side of the church, but the clerk (in the absence of the

London & Croydon. Sep. 1851.

sexton) could not find it. The clerk referred to a History of Croydon, and found that a William Hutchinson Eliakim’s son? (I think William) having suffered loss of property in the island of Antigua, during the American Revolution, died about the same time at Croydon, and has an inscription somewhere in the church – perhaps, as the clerk said, under the new pews. Also an Elizabeth Hutchinson, Eliakim’s widow and some other. These, however, cannot be of our family, as the pedigree proves see Oct.2. 1864. On turning to the Croydon Directory, I see that there is one Roger Hutchinson, a merchant there at present.

Wed. Sep.10.1851.__Went down to Westminster Abbey to make an extract from Domesday Book. It is preserved in the Chapter House. I rang the bell at the last door on going up towards Poets’ Corner; and on asking for the clerk in attendance (Mr. Francis Devon) was at once shown in to the Chapter House. This chamber is circular, or rather multiangular, supported in the centre by a column. On all sides it is covered with volumes of ancient MSS.; so that it is now no longer anything else than a library. It presents no other appearance; for it is covered with shelves, and the backs of books are seen everywhere. I went into an inner apartment, on the left hand after entering and the first volume of the original Domesday was brought me. I made an extract under the head Ottery, in which place Sidmouth occurs. The printed edition of Domesday is a facsimile of the other, as far as printing type can make it. Each page in the printed edition contains precisely the same matter as the original; so that every separate memorandum stands in the same page, and on the same part of every page, in the one as in the other. The memorandum referring to Ottery is found in both, at folio 104 being the right hand page and near the top of the second column. Otterton is a little lower down. The folios in the original are of vellum, written on both sides in two columns. This volume is about four inches thick, and measures near 12 inches by 18. It is in a modern binding. The printed edition is thinner and larger. Through the words ECCLIA S’ MARIE and OTREJ, a red line is drawn; not to obliterate them but to lay a stress upon them. For the same purpose, in modern days we draw a line under the word. The fee which I paid was one shilling; and a receipt was given me, as at the Tower [In my History of Sidmouth]. The printed edition is very correct, except that the short s is used where the long f frequently occurs in the original; and the diphthong æ, in the genetives and plurals of nouns ending in a, is employed, where, in the MS. only the e is found, as in all the old MSS. of the middle ages. I look upon these as errors in close copying.

Friday, Sept.12.__Went into Kensington Gardens, and made a sketch of the bridge at the north end of the water, near Paddington.

Sat. Sep.13.__The weather being still so beautifully fine, I started off on a short tour. Took the rail at Euston Square, and was put down at the Cheddington Station. Walked across the country to Dunstable. Passed Aston; and then through the fields close to that strange looking church called Edgeborough, or Addlesborough, or something.






Dunstable, &c, Sep.1851.


thing like it, standing like St. Michael's Mount on the top of a mound. The range of chalk hills on the south-east is full of bold and rugged acclivities. On a high point at the east end are five barrows, known in the neighbourhood, as "The Graves of the Five Kings.” North of the village of Tottenhoe, to the east of Dunstable, on the extreme point of another chalk hill, are some earth works as of some ancient station. Below them they have tunnelled far into the hill; and thence they procure the stone with which Dunstable Church is being repaired.

Straw platting is one chief occupation of the people about here. A young woman, employed in the trade, told me she could earn about six or seven shillings a week at it; but that those who sowed up the plat into bonnets made more. Even this, I believe, is more than the lace makers of Devonshire get. When walking across the country, I was amused at seeing the farmers' men engaged at this work in the fields – some whilst tending their sheep, and others as they walked along.

Sun. Sep. 14. – Went to Dunstable Priory Church. It is all in disorder and under extensive repair. This is deservedly a celebrated specimen of Norman architecture. But it is grievous [sic] to see how the sculpture of the fine west doorway, and the ornaments of the façade, have been broken and mutilated. The massiveness of the clustered columns of the interior is striking. There are several monuments against the north wall and columns of a most debased, offensive, and incongruous Italian style of architecture. At the east end is no window, but an immense square picture of the Last Supper, with the date 1722 near the left side. The roof is of wood, looking old and rickety. The remains of two doorways about 30 yards west of the entrance, I take to be some remains of the original Priory.

After dinner, took a quiet walk through Haughton Regis to Toddington. In a field, about 100 yards south-east of the church is a large barrow, or something of that sort, called, as a young woman in the field informed me, Conger Hill, but whether I spell it aright I do not know. It much resembles "Danes' Castle", behind the Jail, at Exeter: but whilst Danes' Castle was a circular entrenchment, Conger Hill may have been only a barrow with a deep ditch round it – at least, the small depressions on the top of Conger Hill, which I mounted and examined, are so indecisive, as to lead to the supposition that it was originally no more than a conical mound, with no hollow in the middle, in which men could post themselves, as in a fortress. Running nearly north and south is a straight ridge across the same field, placed as a tangent on the eastern side of Conger Hill. Conger Hill may be 150 feet in diameter, and perhaps 25 feet high. Walked on through the fields, two miles and a half more, to Arlington.


Through Bedfordshire, Sep. 1851


Mon. Sep. 15. – From Harlington (not Arlington) to Barton, four miles, with some fine open chalk hills on the south. Thence to Silsoe, where I dined. Earl de Grey has a mansion and Park here, through the latter of which I walked; but neither is worthy of much remark. Steered for Mappershall (which they call Map'shall) where I had inferred from Lysons’ Bedfordshire, that there existed the ruins of an old castle. By the way – Lysons has already deceived me by his false descriptions. I had understood from him that a castle existed at Tottenhoe, near Dunstable, but when I got there I could find nothing but the earthworks called “The Knole,” [Knoll?] which have the appearance of an ancient British station: he next directed me to Toddington, where I only found Conger Hill, referred to yesterday; and now at Mappershall, wither I went at his suggestion, I discover merely some ridges in a field. There is a conical mound, like a tumulus, perhaps 80 or 90 feet in diameter at the base, at the west end on the field; and immediately east of this, running north and south across the field, are some high ridges. I could learn nothing in the village but that the place is called “The Hills,” and that there is a tradition affirming that a battle was once fought there. From their appearance I should not conclude that these “Hills” cover the ruins of any former existing stone building, such as a castle. They have not that contour or character in the least.

At the east end of the field, near the church, there is a small house of the Elizabethan style. On its east front I observed a large thistle sculptured, surmounted by the Royal crown. Does this refer to the time of James the First?

The church of Mappershall is cruciform, with a square tower in the centre. On the north side of the nave there is a circular headed doorway, with the zig-zag moulding.

Thence I went down the hill to Stondon, where I sketched the little church, scarcely larger than a poor man's cottage; and proceeded to the Arlsey Station, on the Great Northern railway, having walked some fifteen miles to-day.

Tuesday. Sep. 16. – Took rail from Arsleyto St Neots – which they are pleased to pronounce St. Notes. Thence went about 2 miles to Eaton Soken, where Lysons had led me to expect that I should find the ruins of a castle, but where I only found some mounds of earth. The very name of castle is forgotten, the place being now merely called the “Warren” and the “War Hills.” Walked 4 miles to Bushmead, and then two or three to Thurleigh – which they call Thur-lie, accented on the last, - where a castle as Lysons says a castle once stood; but there are now only heaps and ridges. Three miles further, at Bletsoe, there are similar remains, belonging to Lord St. John, who resides in the village.

Wed. Sep.17. – Walked six miles to Bedford – a mean-looking place. I believe there was a castle at one time near here; but the site, with little remaining, was pointed out to me under the


Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire & Cambridgeshire.


name of Newenham Walls. Rode from Bedford to Sandy, on the Great Northern Railway – and judging by the nature of the soil here, it should appear that Sandy is not an inappropriate name. Journeyed to Huntingdon, over a miserably flat country. Near the Ouse are some mounds, once a castle. In proceeding from this place, through St. Ives to Cambridge, the land is almost a dead flat all the way. I admire not such a country.

Th. Sep. 18. – Having slept at Cambridge, I sallied out after coffee and accompaniments to look at Catherine Hall, where my father was some 50 years ago or more, and to see what remains of the Castle now existed – together with sundry other matters of inquiry or curiosity. I remember and old coloured aquatint engraving of this college at home, as long as I can recollect anything; but it led me to expect a larger and finer building than the reality proved to be. The reality is smaller, and meaner and smokier, than I had pictured in my imagination. I think I have heard my father say that he occupied the second floor rooms in front, on the right hand side of the main entrance or centre of the building, as you look at it. These I particularly scrutinised, but did not go in.

The site of the Castle is occupied by the Jail and Law Courts; but the site of the Keep is a large conical mound of chalky earth,

Cambridge, Essex, Suffolk, Sep. 1851.


overgrown with grass, rising some 60 or 70 feet above the level of the town. Having looked at several other things, I took rail 10 miles south to Chesterford. From this point I turned east and walked east to Linton, a small town at the distance of 4 miles. Thence 3 to the village of Horseheath. Here I would have slept; for my feet for several days have been getting so terribly blistered and sore, that I scarcely knew how to get on. No where [sic], however, in Horseheath, could I get a bed; so, in spite of walking, like the Pilgrim, with the un-boiled peas in his shoes, I was necessitate to push on. I was encouraged by being told that I could doubtless get every accommodation at Westerfield, a village only 3 miles off – but the “only” three at such a time, was a serious matter. To add to the discomfort, it was now getting dark. Howbeit “necessitas non habet legem,” and I limped forward.

Oh horror! On making every enquiry at Westerfield, I was told that all the beds were occupied, and no place could be found for me. I thought I should have dropped.

Haverhill was a town only two miles off. I was urged to proceed “only” two miles.

What was to be done? It was quite dark: but that was nothing, except that I could not enjoy a view of


Haverhill, Suffolk. Sep. 1851.


the country. A light in a windmill on one of the hills I took for a

will-’o-the-wisp. It was too dark to see the mill, and nothing appeared but the light.

At last I dragged myself into Haverhill. I staggered into the best Inn in the place – I secured a bed – I ordered tea – what a luxury to pull off my boots! I rolled into bed, and how I did sleep for nine hours!

It is one of the inconveniences of walking tours, that a resting place cannot always be secured when it is desired. It is not difficult in a moderate sized town; but when the route lies across the country through villages, it is not always to be done, – as I sufficiently proved now, and as I have proved also on other occasions.

Friday. Sep. 19. – From Haverhill I walked on gingerly towards Clare. On the road at Stoke, I came to the estate of the Elwes family, called The College. Some of the materials of Clare Castle I was told, were employed in constructing it. The neighbourhood is rife with anecdotes of the Elwes the miser, some of which were given to me – as how he would play cards half the night, and early in the morning he would take his cattle to market, and drive hard bargains with the farmers with whom he might have any dealings, haggling even the merest trifle in the price: how he would carry his crust of bread in


Clare, Suffolk. Sep. 1851.


his pocket, and drink out of the gutter, in order to study economy: and how he once picked an old wig out of the ditch, and wore it for a fortnight, rather than be at the cost of buying a new one. This was strange enough for a man who is reported to have died worth half a million of money.

Clare is a small town, bearing the marks of antiquity about it. The Castle, now nearly demolished, was built at an early period by the Earls of Clare – the same who erected the Castle at Tunbridge. Nothing remains now but some ridges and ditches in a field by the river Stour, and a large conical mound, on which is part of the curved wall of a round towr [sic], (the ancient Keep I presume,) having three triangular buttresses, in three stages, against it. The wall is six feet thick, built of rubble of flint stones and large pebbles; and I observed several fragments of flat tiles, about half an inch thick or more, imbedded in the midst of old masonry. The few remains of the enclosing walls down in the field are four feet thick. This meadow, once the site of the great mass of the buildings and courts of the castle, is full of risings and depressions, in some places



Clare, Suffolk. Sep. 1851.


maintaining great regularity in the way they are laid out, and evidently indicating the places occupied by former buildings. The place of St. John’s church is pointed out; and the spot where a skeleton, a quantity of bones, and some sculptured stonework (used to make the entrance gate in the wall) together with other localities, are shown. An opinion prevails here, that the rubble walls of these old castles were built, not in the regular way by the hands of masons, but that two flat boards were fixed, distant from each other the proposed thickness of the wall, and then, that the stones and mortar were mixed together, in the manner of concrete, and thrown in between them. But to this I do not readily assent – first, because, on the external surfaces of these very walls, the stones are laid in regular courses, showing horizontal lines: and secondly, both in the fragment of the Keep, and in the walls in the meadow, there are square holes at certain distances, and at regular heights, apparently the places, in which the horizontal poles of the scaffolding rested, whilst the building was in progress. These two facts militate against the theory.

The property belongs to Mr. Barker in trust (he being a minor) his mother, for her second husband, having married


Castle Hedingham. Sep. 1851.


the Revd. Mr. Jenner, the vicar of Clapham, or Clapton.

On the west front of the church tower, over the door, are the Clare arms, e.g. – Or three chevronells, Gules, the same as occur on Magna Charta. At the south-west corner of the churchyard is an old house curiously ornamented with embossed flowers and scrolls, bearing the date 1672. On its north side, under a window, is an oak carving of two knights in armour, each kneeling on one knee, and serving as supporters to a shield, whereon, I observed Che Fretty, with a Canton in the dexter chief; but too much decayed to decipher the minutiae.

Sat. Sep. 20. – Took coach from Clare south to Castle Hedingham. My! Here now is a castle after my heart. On the road, near Yeldham (I think Yeldham) there is a splendid old oak tree, gnarled and picturesque. A little further the coachman pointed out two graves on the east side of the road in a curious place. They were in a small enclosure or yard, close to an out-house or cow-house, belonging to a private residence. I suppose unconsecrated ground.

The remains of the Castle of Castle Hedingham stand on a fine hill immediately on the east side of the town, within the private grounds of Mr Magendie’s property. The modern house is an


Dunmow. Sussex. Sep. 1851.


ugly brick building. The old castle is a square mass, much like the Keep of the Tower of London, but the stone is a better colour. The turrets at the corners project only a few inches from the main building. The summits of those at the north-west and at the south-east angles are gone, but the other two rise high above the body of the great mass of the edifice, which may be eighty feet high. In the basement story [sic] I measured the wall, and found it twelve feet thick. The entrance door, and the windows, have circular heads and Saxon or Norman mouldings. The interior of the walls is of rubble, but the exterior is a well-wrough [sic] facing of large blocks of good stone. The circular staircase is perfect to the top: and as each stair is six feet long, with a massive newel, some eighteen inches thick, it is the most comfortable winding staircase I ever mounted. There are passages and small chambers in the thickness of the walls. There are three floors; the great Hall occupying entirely one, and all round it, in the thickness of the wall, there is a gallery, opening into it by arches for spectators, placed about half way between the floor and the ceiling. Altogether it is a splendid piece of antiquity.

Now steered westward towards Dunmow – which they call Dunm [rest of word hidden in fold] accented on the first. On arriving at this place, my first question was – How are you off for bacon? I was told, however, that the place where the Flitches of Bacon may be claimed is Little Dunmow, distant about two miles. I observed that about three years ago, and also recently, during the past summer, I had, in the west of England, seen accounts in the papers, stating that on two several occasions the fletch had been claimed and obtained by certain loving couples; but my informants assured me that in another case alleged was it true. During the past summer it was proposed to get up a sort of fete, with the intention of celebrating a kind sort of sham celebra representation; and with this view it was advertised in the papers. Such an immense concourse of persons, however, prepared to flock into Dunmow, that the inhabitants were alarmed at the amount of their visitors, especially as the majority had accepted the idea that it was a real, and not a fictitious affair. It was feared that when they arrived and discovered the truth, they would smash the windows in the heat of their indignation. It was determined, therefore, to hold a meeting, when the whole project was abandoned. This seems to have been the origin of the paragraphs I had seen in the papers. But they told me that besides the bacon, the applicants could claim certain rates levied in the parish, and all the arrears of these rates back since the last Flitch was applied for; and as I was assured that the Flitch had not been claimed for upwards of a century, the accumulated amount would be enormous. For this reason the good people of Little Dunmow would contemplate with terror, the prospect of such an application.

These facts I jotted down this morning in a letter, and sent them to the Exeter and Plymouth Gazette.


Essex. Sep. 1851


Mon. Sep. 22. – From Dunmow took my route to Thraxted; and at about three miles from the latter place, on the west side of the road in a field, there are two masses of stone wall, these being the only remains of an abbey. They are on the property of Lord Maynard.

At Saffron Waldron, on Lord Braybrooke’s land, about a hundred and fifty yards east of the church, there are some shapeless pieces of rubble wall, once a castle.

From this place I directed my steps towards Barkway, through the villages of Wenden, Elmdon, Heydon, &c., and during the day walked fifteen miles, the weather being as clear and hot as midsummer.

Tu. Sep. 23. – Walked but seven miles to-day; for the weather was hotter than yesterday, as the wind had fallen, and my feet were not proof against the friction of this pedestrianising. Arrived at the village of Anstey, to which place I steered for the sake of seeing what sort of a castle they have there. On the north side of the Church I found a circular mound of earth, surrounded by a moat, still full of water. The mound at one period (I was told) used to be much higher and more conical, but that about 25 years ago it was partly lowered and leveled [sic]. The circular top, measuring about 100 feet in diameter, is now bearing a crop of potatoes – sufficiently blighted. The sides and also the immediate land in the neighbourhood is so thickly (too thickly) planted with


Hertford. Sep. 1851. and London.


trees, that nothing of the features of the place can be discovered without much trouble. On the north-west side of the mound are two white thorn trees. Under one is a stone hollow vessel, somewhat broken, resembling the font in a church, and which, as I was informed, the workmen turned up when the summit was leveled [sic]. The block of stone, (which measures about 18 inches on every side,) however is not a cube. The bottom is not a square: it is a diamond or trapezoid. The place still goes by the name of The Castle; and there are sundry stories in the village about long subterraneous passages, supposed dungeons, still unexplored, buried treasure, and the like – according to the general and approved custom in all such cases.

Wed. Sep. 24. – Walked from Anstey, through the villages of Brent Pelham, Furneux Pelham (Furnux, as they pronounce it) Aldbury, and Hadham, eleven miles, to Bishop’s Stortford, feasting on nuts and blackberries by the road side. They call it Bishop’s Storford, dropping the T.

At this place there was once a castle; but nothing now remains, but a great heap of earth in a field. It is covered with trees, and surmounted by certain remains of stone walls. It bears the name of “The Mound.”

Here I took rail for London, where I arrived late in the evening, having been away eleven days. The weather has been splendid.


London. Sep. 1851


Thursday, Sep. 25. – Curious enough! Only twelve hours after I arrived in London, it began to rain. Whilst on my tour I anxiously watched the skies, deprecating a change. It was splendid the whole time; and allowed me to get safe back.

Walked to Chelsea and back across Hyde Park – two miles each way. During a shower, sheltered for ten minutes under a tree. The crowds were beginning to pour forth out of The Exhibition

Fri. Sep. 26. – Walked from Stanley Street, Paddington, to Marlborough Street, to see Mr. Shoberl. Thence to Bayswater, and called on Mr Richards. Then to my abode. In all, about six miles.

Sat. Sep. 27. – Dined with Mr. and Mrs. Richards, at Bayswater, where I met my cousin Mary Roberton, who had come up from Chudleigh on business.

Mon. Sep. 29. 1851. – Michaelmas Day; and very temperate pleasant weather; but the hot suns and clear skies, of which we have had so much this summer and autumn, seem to have passed by for this year. Accompanied Mary Roberton to Messrs. Law, Tindell, & Hussey’s, 10 Lincoln Inn New Square; and then we went to the British Museum, to see the new additions, but especially the Nineveh marbles, sent to England by Dr Layard. By the perspective, the drawing, and the general execution, these marbles reveal an early period of art. There is the same want of animation in the figures, such as we see in the sculptures of the Hindoos and Egyptians: whilst a glance at the Elgin


London. October, 1851.


collection, and other works of the Greeks and Romans, where a more advanced stage is perceptible, all is life, and the groups are full of motion and animation. The contrast is very striking. But the Nineveh marbles are particularly interesting from the corroboration which they afford to the sacred, and some of the profane writings. It would be impossible to survey with indifference, those very sculptures which we have reason to suppose were really looked at by the Prophet Daniel himself. Whilst standing by them, the vast space of time seemed to be annihilated; and I could fancy myself contemporary with him and Belshazzar. The engravings of these slabs, which Layard has given in his works, are very faithful to the originals; not only in drawing, but as having preserved their spirit, expression, and character.

Then went to the Reading Room of the Museum, where I had not been for four years.

Last Thursday, the 25th Instant, The Electric Telegraph was again laid down between Dover and Calais – after some bungling.



London, October, 1851.


Th. Oct. 2 1851. – Went again to the Exhibition, for the third time. It was very crowded, and I afterwards learnt that there were 64.298 people there. I looked at the great mass of gold ore from California, recently added to the collection, valued at £3.600. It is

London. Oct. 1851.


about half as big again as one’s hat, and looks like a lump of whity-brown sugar, tolerably well crystalised [sic]. Also the great iron gun from Sweden, just arrived, that loads at the breech, and the great vase of polished red granite. In once more passing through the avenues and galleries, I discovered an infinite number of things worthy of study that I had before overlooked, and if I were to go a dozen times more, I should doubtless continue to discover many more that have, even now, escaped my notice. This is not strange in a place so large and filled with such a vast and such a varied collection. Before I came out I took another look at the Koh-i-noor Diamond, worth between two and three millions of money: and I tried the gravity of the policeman on duty, by the side of the cage in which it is kept, and with all the simplicity I could assume, by asking – Whether the public were allowed to handle that article? Also took another glance at the Queen of Spain’s jewels; at the spirited group of sculpture “The Amazon” by Kiss (The German with the ridiculous name); at most of the other objects of sculpture; at the machinery; the wood carving; the furniture; the carpets; the tapestry; the glass; the silver and gold plate; the naval models; the piano-fortes; and other musical instruments; the cutlery; the china; the watch and clock work – in short, I looked all around and admired everywhere, for everything is good in its way.


London. October. 1851.


Sun. Oct. 5. – Went to the church on the nor-west side of Paddington Station. This church with its crocheted spire, is a very good architectural composition outside. The inside is too plain. I was pleased to remark an absence of Puseyism, or semi Popery, in the performance of the service.

Walked out to Kensel [sic] Green Cemetary [sic], where I had made many resolutions to go before. As I went to the Lying-in-State of the Duke of Sussex, I was curious to see his resting place. The monument is nothing but some plain massive blocks of granite, enclosed with a double series of railing. It is at the western end of the ground, furthest from the entrance, and on the right-hand side of the path. Opposite on the left-hand is the tomb of the Princess Sophia – much more costly in design. This cemetary [sic] is not so diversified as some I have seen.

Mon. Oct. 6. – Today 107.815 people went to the exhibition. The greatest number hitherto has been somewhat above 70.000 but now we have arrived at the last week, people seem to be making every effort to flock there.

Had tea with Mrs Kennedy and her two sons, In Charles Street, Westbourn Terrace, who used to live in Sidmouth.

Tues. Oct. 7. – Bingham arrived in Town this evening, from Sidmouth.


London. October, 1851.


Wed. Oct. 8. – A beautiful day. Went eastward. Walked across Hyde Park from Paddington to Hungerford, where I took steamer for London Bridge. Was struck with the sight of the crowds of people who were hurrying towards the Exhibition. Walked from London Bridge to the Tower. Returned westward by the same route, all the way to Paddington.

Th. Oct. 9. – A miserably drizzly day. Called on Mrs Kennedy in Charles Street, Westbourn Terrace, and on Mr Richards at Bayswater; and found them both at home.

Sat. Oct. 11. – To-day the Great Exhibition closes to the public: Determined to go in order to see the finale. It was immensely crowded, especially in the principal avenues. I think I have enjoyed the examination and contemplation of this vast collection of ingenuity more, the more I have looked into it. To-day I particularly sought out the statue in white marble of a veiled female figure, in the Austrian department. She has a veil over her face, and her features are discernible through. The crowd around this work of art was very great. Also lookd [sic] at the great blue, and the great black diamonds, as well as the Koh-i-Noor: and the large opal, as big as a partridge egg, or bigger. In the Fine-art Court, - amongst the machinery, and even in most of the places where I thought I had sufficiently scrutinised before, I still found many things to admire, which had escaped my notice. The scene at the Refreshment stalls was amusing. It was very difficult to get served, such was the demand for cakes, coffee and ginger beer. The applications were vehement and ravenous; but after waiting awhile I got some buns; and retiring to a snug corner to discuss them, I surveyed the tumult. At five o’clock the organs, and other musical instruments, struck up God Save the Queen; and at least fifty thousand voices accompanied them. The effect was very striking. The National Anthem was succeeded by nine hearty Huzzas, amid the waving of hats by men, and of handkerchiefs by the women. This over, the signal for departure was given by the attendants; namely, beating all the numerous great bells, either for church towers or turret clocks, with which the building is well supplied, with mallets, or ringing them with ropes. Amid the most stunning din and jingling. I issued out with the multitude into the Park; and returned to my domicile much pleased.

Sun. Oct. 12. – In the afternoon I enjoyed the country air at Hampton Court.

Mon. Oct. 13. – Went again to the Record Office in The Tower, and copied some memorandums from the Fine Rolls and the Inquisitio post mortem.

Tu. Oct. 14. – I was struck with the first leading article in The Times to-day. The substance of that article has been virtually pilfered from me. On the first of this month – a fortnight ago – I wrote a letter to the Editor of The Times on the subject of Ireland. My letter was not printed, and no notice was taken of it; and as so great a (Image 160)


London. October. 1851


length of time had elapsed, I concluded that my letter was not worth printing, and that it had been thrown aside. Judge my surprise, however, this morning on looking into the paper, to detect in that article, the substance of my own letter! It is not fair thus to steal a person’s ideas. Such dishonourable conduct merits the most severe censure.

Went into Hyde Park, and made a coloured sketch of the north-west side or angle of the centre part of the Crystal Palace.

Then, unexpectedly, fell in with my old chum J.M. Berry Esqr.

Then walked to Westbourn Park Villas to call on Newgent [?] Tyrell.

Thu. Oct. 16. – Went to the Record Office at the East End of Carlton Ride, and made some extracts from the Testa de Neville, and the De Quo Waranto. I quoted from the first volume of the former, which is a book about 5 inches thick, and near 14 or 15 by 10. The writing is large and clear, in two columns, and the whole in good condition. The latter, from which I made my extract, was a bundle of skins about 9 inches wide, and a yard long, or there about (sic), tied together, or sewn together, at one end.

Fri. Oct. 17. – Went down to Lambeth Palace, to see Mr. Felix Knyvell, the Secretary, and to inquire whether, in the Archiepiscopal Library, there may be any documents or MSS. referring in any way to the ancient history of Sidmouth. I think I have a clue to something.

Then went again to the Chapter House at Westminster, and made some transcripts from the Hundred Rolls.

This is a curious looking Chapter House, covered as the walls on all sides are with plain deal bookcases and shelves, and


London. Oct. 1851


every part filled with records. I was told that it had been thus fitted up and appropriated for the last 300 years. I presume that as soon as the new Record Offices near Chancery Lane are completed, and thoroughly dry, all these various archives, now scattered over London and Westminster, will be collected under one roof.

Sat. Oct. 18. – Once more at The Tower, where Mr. T.D. Hardy, as usual, was in attendance; and made several extracts from The Close, and the Fine Rolls.

Had tea with J.M. Berry, in Great Castle Street, Cavendish Square

Sun. Oct. 19. – Went to the church at the west end of Sussex Gardens Paddington.

Mon. Oct. 20. – Walked from Stanley Street, Paddington, to the Adelphi Pier, where I found a steamer that took me to London Bridge for one half-penny. Walked back through Newgate Street, Holborne, and Oxford Street, calling at several places along the way.

Tuesd. Oct. 21. – Walked down to Hungerford Pier, and took the steamer for two pence to Lambeth Palace. Through the courtesy of Mr. Felix Neville Knyvell, I made a copy of an entry relating to Sidmouth, of Cromwell’s time, in vol. 5. p.342, of the Parliamentary Survey of 1646-50.

Thence took the steamer to Westminster, and called on the Mssrs. Nicholls, in Parliament Street. Thence to Mr. Thursfield near Vaxhall Road. Then called on Mrs. Rees, near Chelsea Hospital. And then walked back to Paddington, through Hyde Park, taking a passing look at the Crystal Palace – which they are dismantling.


London, Oct. 1851.


Wedn. Oct. 22. – Went to the Library at the British Museum; and after that went to the Medal Room, to inquire what Roman coins they had bearing the Centaur. I wished for copies of them, with a view to having them engraved, in order, ultimately, to illustrate as fully as possible the subject of the Bronze Centaur found at Sidmouth. At least five coins of Gallienus bore the Centaur; two of Carausius and one or more of Antoninus Pius, Tetricus, and Trajan. The last is a contest between a Centaur and the Lapith[s?]. I believe, however, they have only those of Gallienus in the Museum.

Th. Oct. 23. – Went down to the marine store dealers to-day to see if I could get a good size second-hand flag to hoist in the tree before the house at Coburg Terrace, Sidmouth. By a little inquiry I soon found a wopper (sic). It is about 15 feet by 20, and a red ensign. The man told me that such a flag new, would cost three guineas and a half. After some little fighting, I got it for 15 shillings.

Fri. Oct. 24. – At the Record Office in Carlton Gardens I transcribed half of the original deed wherein Agnes, last Abbess of Sion, leases the manor of Sidmouth for 99 years to Richard Gosenell, for £51״17״7 p. annum. It is on parchment, measuring about 18 inches high, by perhaps 24 wide. The skin has turned nearly as brown as the ink in some places: and the commencement of the last 4 or 5 lines on the left hand, are obliterated. It appears originally to have had a seal.


London. Oct. 1851.


Sat. Oct. 25. – Finished copying the aforesaid lease. Had a lesson in wood engraving from Miss Lucinda Kelly.

Sun. Oct. 26. – Went to church and then called and said good bye to the Richardses and Mrs. Kennedy.

Mon. Oct. 27. – At the Record Office in Carlton Ride I made some extracts from the accounts and rents of the manors formerly belonging to Sion House, that of Sidmouth being one. These MSS, which I have come upon quite unexpectedly, are apparently the very ones I wrote to the Duke of Northumberland about. But as I am going down to Sidmouth in a few days, I must leave them for a future opportunity, for they are too voluminous to copy now.

Tues. Oct. 28. – In the Medal Room of the British Museum, they gave me four sealing wax impressions of four coins of Gallienus bearing the Centaur. I have been enquiring for copies of all the Roman coins bearing the Centaur I could procure.

Th. Oct. 30. –To-day I got a look at Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian, who, at this moment, is the topic of conversation in London. He arrived in London a few days ago, and the English people are making great demonstrations in his favour. Whether he is really worthy of these demonstrations, or whether he is not, I confess to some difficulty in coming to a decision. On the one hand I have heard him extolled to the skies as a true friend to his country, who has only endeavoured to free Hungary from the unjust oppressions and tyrannies of Austria; and on the other hand, I have heard him denounced as a rebel to his sovereign, who, by dishonest and unscrupulous means, has sought to overturn all established government, give licence


London. Oct. 1851


to misrule, and be ready for any measures, however ultra or insurrectionary, in order to serve his own ends. Between these two pictures, I have found it somewhat difficult to decide. I refuse to be led by the newspapers, because I think they are too frequently ignorant of the real merits of a great or intricate question, and go rather by the popular voice. He has escaped from the hands of his enemies, and has paid a visit to England, on his way, it is said, to America. But it is hinted that these public demonstrations are not without their object. It is hinted that he is trying to interest the English people in his own and his country’s cause, with a view to future operations. We shall see.

He went this morning from Westminster into the city to pay a visit to the Lord Mayor. I went down and saw him in The Strand, near the bottom of Agar Street. He was in an open carriage drawn by four grays, accompanied by several gentlemen. In his style he looked very German – very like one half of the foreigners one meets near Leicester Square. The engravings that have been published of him are not like, and too flattering. There is nothing particularly striking in his countenance. He wore a queer shaped hat, something like a lady’s riding hat, with a black feather in it. He was much cheered as he passed, and he frequently rose up, and taking his hat off, acknowledged these greetings. He does not look much more than five-and-forty, though I have heard he is near fifty.

Left Paddington by the mail train, at 9 o’clock this evening for Devonshire.


London and Sidmouth, Oct. 1851


Fri. Oct. 31. –Travelled all night. Most of my fellow travellers slept; but this I never do. At half past four this morning we arrived safe at Exeter (so the expense of insuring my life for the journey was useless as it happened) and here I got out. Had a good warm at a nice fire at the New London Inn, and took a brisk walk in the dark up and down High Street, and a little before six, just as the dawn was beginning to appear, I got on the mail for Sidmouth. We proceeded on through Ottery, and I got home by eight.


Sun. Nov. 2. – Went to All Saints Church.

Tu. Nov. 4. – Hired Holmes, a young man who lives “up on land,” who has been a sailor, and who is a good climber, to get into the tree, and assist me in getting up some new and stronger halyards for my great flag.

Wed. Nov. 5. – Old pope day! Had up my new flag for the first time. Amongst the admirers of my new display, is Wheaton, the sexton, who gazed at it from the churchyard. He wants to beg it of me to hoist on the top of the tower! I reminded him that I had given a considerable sum of money for it. That perhaps the Vicar would not mind two or three guineas for a flag for his own tower: or that, if the parishioners would subscribe for such a purpose, I would contribute.


Sidmouth Devon, Nov. 1851


Saturday. Nov. 8. – Walked out to Sidbury. Called at the Vicarage, recently rebuilt since the unfortunate fire. Then had tea with Mrs Church and her boy, who are sojourning at Sidbury, on his account, for change of air.

Sun. Nov. 9. – Prince of Wales’s birthday. Had up my flag.

Wed. Nov. 12. – Our neighbour in Coburg Terrace, Miss Brotherton, had a snug tea with mother and self – Bingham dining with the Wolcotts.

Th. Nov. 13. – Went with Mr Heineken to the top of High Peak Hill, to examine the earthworks. We went in a vehicle over Peak Hill, past Pinn Farm, and then on perhaps half a mile before we found a lane towards the south; and after that we had to turn back again, having got (sic) too far. In this circuitous way we reached the upper cone of High Peak Hill. We examined the beds of charcoal, which I regret to say are fast wearing out. The flagstaff which the lightening (sic) shattered, we measured with a quadrant, and made it 48 feet 9 inches. The “apparent tumulus,” as I have turned it in my plan in the Gentleman’s Magazine, next took our attention. He had brought a spade wraped [sic] up in brown paper, to escape notice, for we had no permission to dig; and I had fortified myself with the kitchen poker! With these tools I set to work. He took an opportunity, when he thought I was not looking, of dropping a Roman coin into the ground. We had a good deal of laughing when the coin was turned up; but I charged him with the fraud. My tools, I found, were not efficient enough to make much progress amongst the closely packed stones and earth. I still think it may have been a barrow. We were only able to make a slight examination of the spot.

On returning, we sent the carriage round. We walked to Peak Hill, where we joined it; and got in to descend to Sidmouth. The weather was beautiful.

Sun. Nov. 16. – Walked to Sidbury this morning. Before I came back, I took a turn on Sidbury Castle Hill. Walked all round: remarked the ancient flanked entrance at the western end: the various points of interest I had before dwelt upon: and descending through the wood on its south slope, walked back to Sidmouth.

Monday Nov. 17. 1851. – My birthday. Called on Mr Barrett, bootmaker, one of the churchwardens, to ask for permission to search the parish chest. Took a brisk walk to the top of Peak Hill and back, for the morning was clear and cold.

Finished reading a History of Kirkstall Abbey.


Sidmouth, Nov. 1851


Tuesd. Nov. 18. – Splendid day, but cold. After breakfast, started over Peak Hill, to the top of High Peak, to discover what has become of the flagstaff, which Mr Heineken and myself measured last Thursday. It vanished last Saturday. On arriving at the spot, I see that it has been dug up, and wholly removed. The north wind was rather sharp and the frost was on the grass in the shady places: so I went out over on the sea face of the cliff, sheltered from the wind, and warmed by the bright sun. Here I reclined for half an hour, spy-glass in hand, and enjoying the fine view. Walked back, and got to Coburg Terrace by one o’ clock.

Wed. Nov. 19. – Laid an etching ground on a copper plate X inches, and traced thereon a bird’s-eye view of Sidmouth – being the modern view, in contradistinction to the “Sidemew Brito-Romana Restaurata,” which I mean to engrave.

Thurs. Nov. 20. – Sent off to Australia our joint letter to Fanny in answer to her last of April 30, which we received Novr. 16.

Engraved 4 hours.

In the evening, went with mother and Bingham next door, to a party at Miss Brotherton’s.

Frid. Novr. 21. – Princess Royal’s Birthday. Had up my great red ensign. It blew a stiff breeze from the north; and my, how the flag did pull!

Sat. Nov. 22. – Engraved 4 hours; and with the previous 8 = 12.

Sun. Nov. 23. – Walked to Sidbury. Returning, took a turn over Core Hill. Went up the field on the north side of the hedge dividing the parishes. It is as steep as the roof of a house. This

Sidmouth. November. 1851.


field was enclosed and cleared of furze last year. It now bears a crop of turnips. They are obliged to hold on tolerably tight with their roots, otherwise they would roll down the hill.

Mon. Nov. 24. – Engraved 4½ hours. 4½ + 12 = 16½. Spent the evening at Mrs Walker’s, where I met the three Misses Elphinstone, Miss Wodsworth, Miss Emily Fitz-Gerald, and the family.

Tues. Nov. 25. – Engraved 4½ hours. 4½ + 16½ = 21, hours.

Wed. Nov. 26. – Engraved 4½ hours. This with the previous 21 makes 25½.

Thur. Nov. 27. – Engraved 2½ hours:- 2½ + 25½ = 28 hours.

Went to Sidbury in a two-horse four-wheel with mother to pay some visits. We called at Lime Park and took up Mrs Walker. At Sidbury we called on Mrs Church (Mrs Walker’s daughter) then at the Vicarage: then at Court Hall. When returning we called at Primley Hill, Mount Edgar, and at Livonia. The day was fine, but somewhat cold.

Friday. Nov. 28. – Engraved 3 hours. 2 [sic] + 28 = 31.

Sat. Nov. 29. – Engraved 4½ hours. 4½ + 31 = 35½.

Sun. Nov. 30. –At church at All Saints. In the afternoon took a walk via the Bickwell Fields, the steep green lane which I have heard called “The East Indies”: then up over the wild part of Peak Hill where the wortle berries grow (some of which I picked and eat [sic]) and so on westerly across the flat top of the hill till I looked down upon the valley of the Otter. When looking towards the sea, this part of the hill seems to be at least 100 higher than Peak Hill near the cliff. Returned home by the road near the cliff.


Sidmouth, December 1851.


Mon. Dec. 1. 1851. – Engraved 4½ hours. 4½ + 35½ = 40 hours.

Tues. Dec. 2. – Engraved 4½ hours. This with the former makes 44½ .

Wed. Dec. 3. – Engraved 4 hours. This 4 added to the 44½ makes 48½.

Th. Dec. 4. – Engraved 4½ hours: 4½ + 48½ = 53 hours.

Friday, Dec. 5. – Engraved 2 hours, and finished the work –The “BIRD’S EYE VIEW OF SIDMOUTH, DEVON.” This 2 hours added to the former 53, will make 55 hours. Next proceeded to put on the acid. The weather, however, during the time the thing has been in hand, has been cold and frosty, and the “ground” on the copper plate so brittle that it kept continually chipping off under the action of the etching needle. Sometimes I thought that the work would be entirely spoilt; but by every now and then warming the back of the plate at the fire, I managed to go on.

Made the “wall” round the edge, and put on the mixture of nitric acid and water –3 of the latter to 1 of the former: but the coldness of the weather so retarded its action, that I added some more acid. In order to find out when the acid has been on long enough, I now follow a different plan from my former one. I used to go by time; but this is altogether fallacious, as the action of the acid is very different in different temperatures of the air. I find the best way is, to note well those parts of the work where the lines of the etching needle are closest together, whether parallel lines or cross-hatching, whilst the acid is on. By then taking notice when those places begin to “break up” and come off, a fair criterion is afforded as to how far the progress of the corrosion has gone on. The closest parts will, of course, break up first; and these, therefore, are the localities where the required information is to be obtained. I bit in some of the parts rather dark, in order that the plate should yield the more impressions, for the the View of Sidmouth from the Sea, which I did some years ago, was bit in so faintly, that the lighter parts soon wore out in printing.

Sat. Dec. 6. – Finished the biting in, and cleaned off the plate.

Sun. Dec. 7. – After church walked to Sidbury. Had tea at Lime Park, on my way back.

Tu. Dec. 9. – Walked out to Sidford to look at the house where Charles the Second is said to have taken refuge, and to have slept for a night, at the time when he was endeavouring to escape from his enemies. It stands on the south side of the road, at about midway between the Bridge and High Street, and on the chimney bears the date 1574, with the letters N.I.E under the figures. At present it is tenanted by two families, Horn, a baker, occupying the western half, which is the most interesting position, from association. I am


Sidmouth, December, 1851.


told that it is called “Porch House.” It is now the property of Hughes Ball Hughes Esqr. Lord of the Manor of Sidmouth. The room in which the king is reputed to have slept is on the first floor at the north-west corner of the building. I ascended to it by a ladder – a modern contrivance, for the ancient doorway, at the top of the stairs, is fastened up and not used. It is now only a lumber room, without any furniture. The lintel of the fireplace is of stone sculptured; and in the spandrels are the letters I and N; but the diagonal stroke of the N slopes the wrong way. There are several strange cupboards and recesses in the walls; and on the panels and doors of these, there are some remains of carvings. The tradition goes, that when the king left, he forgot one of his gloves, which he left behind him. All stuff? He was not there. Read the “Boscobel Tracts.”

On my way I looked at an old house about three or four hundred yards beyond Sid Abbey, in Salcombe Parish. It is on the west side of the road, with the chimney of the gable flush as one passes by. It bears the date 1711 thus – 17SM11. Some persons have mistaken the letter S for a figure 5; and thought that it should be fifteen hundred and odd. But from examining the sculpture carefully with an opera-glass, I am satisfied that such a mistake is very palpable.


Sidmouth, Dec. 1851.


Th. Dec. 11. – Received eight proofs of my “BIRD’S EYE VIEW OF SIDMOUTH”. They are much too dark; but I shall hope that a larger press, and better printing than can be had in Sidmouth, will produce better impressions than these are.

Fr. Dec. 12. – Sent Wolcott and Lang’s cheque for £29״2״6 to the Devon and Cornwall Bank, Exeter.

Gardened for a couple of hours.

Occupied all the morning new buffing the keys of the piano forte. Glued on all the pieces of felt on one side of the hammers, and will finish with the other side when these are dry.

Sat. Dec. 13. – Glued the other end of the felt to the hammers.

Sun. Dec. 14. – At church at all saints’ [sic] with mother; having taken a sitting on the 6th Trustant, in addition to her own.

Mon. Dec. 15. – Finished buffing the piano; and have certainly much improved the touch and tone.

Tu. Dec. 16. – Walked to Sidbury Castle House to call on Mr. Le Patourel.

Wed. Dec. 17. – Gardened. Made a fire and burnt the weeds. Kept it in all day, and up to bed time.

Th. Dec. 18. – After breakfast went into the garden to spread the ashes of my fire of yesterday. On putting the spade into it, I found that the embers were still all alight.

Had a practise on my French horn, which has been laying by for the last two or three years. Must get a horn with valves.


Sidmouth. Dec. 1851.


Fri. Dec. 19. – Put a brass hook behind the front door to keep it open.

Sat. Dec. 20. – Started to call on Mr Harvey at Packham – our former neighbour at 3 Coburg Terrace. Got as far as Sidford, when it came on to rain so hard that I was obliged to turn back.

Sun. Dec. 21. – A tremendously rainy day – but being the shortest day, it was soon over.

Mon. Dec. 22. – Witnessed Mrs Walker’s signature at Lime Park.

Tu. Dec. 23. – Walked to Sidbury Castle House and back. In the evening had some music at Mr Heineken’s.

Wed. Dec. 24. – Beautiful day! Clear sky – bright sun! Made a geological expedition along the beach to Ladram Bay and back. Made drawings of the faults, dislocations, and principal features of the cliff all the way. From observation I find that the strata of Peak Hill rise 2½ degrees towards the west. From the face of the cliff in Sandy Cove, just behind Picket Rock, I knocked out some large specimens of the alcyonite.

In a letter from Bingham from London, received the triplicate of the order on the South Australian Banking company, which declares that Y.B. Hutchinson Esqr. had, on the 11th Instant paid to the credit of Charles Rumley Esqr. the sum of £124״11״9. Read it and sent it back.


Sidmouth. Dec. 1851.


Mon. Dec. 29. – Finished engraving a new card plate, my name executed in characters to imitate my hand writing. This was entirely done with the graver, and consequently a great achievement for me. The words in small letters I got a professional engraver to execute, namely “Coburg Terrace, Sidmouth.”

In the evening went first to a party at Mrs Creighton’s, in Coburg Terrace; and secondly to Mrs Walker’s, Lime Park.

Tues. Dec. 30. – Walked to Paccombe and called on Mr. Harvey. It is a good many years now, since I was last at Paccombe.

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