Dragonfly

POH Transcripts - 1862

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SIDMOUTH, JAN. 1862 1

Sat. Jan. 4- Returned home. Took the rail to Starcross. Hailed a boat and had a pleasant sail to Exmouth, for the tide was high and the wind fair and the weather fine and mild. Arrived in Exmouth just ten minutes too late for the omnibus to Budleigh Salterton. Walked and found it very warm. Arrived at one. Dined with a friend there. Started again. Walked to the Limekilns, across the meadows, over the wooden bridge, along that beautiful walk over the river to Otterton, through what was once a park, then by the lanes over Peak Hill, and so to Sidmouth.

Mon. Jan.20- Very busy for some days putting up old oak mantel piece in the Old Chancel and oak panelling over it, made of old oak chests which I have bought in the cottages and villages near Sidmouth

SIDMOUTH, FEB. 1862 1

Thu. Feb. 13- At a party at Mrs. Walker's, Sid House, she having recently sold Lyme Park to Mr. Wyndham.

Tue. Feb. 25- At a party at the Moysey's at the Vicarage and had music. Left and went to the ball at the London Hotel, where I arrived soon after midnight. We broke up at four.

SIDMOUTH, MAR. 1862 1

Tue. Mar. ? - Today nine of the Colyton Rifle Volunteers, with their officers, came over and contended against nine of our Artillery Volunteers. They had the long enfield, and we the short carbine. The ranges were 100, 200 and 300 yards. Our gross total, firing five rounds at each station, amounted to 120 points, in 75 hits. These added together make 195. Theirs amounted to 141 points in 82, which added together makes 223. Then-195 from 223 leaves 28, by which number they beat us. The score kept by the drill sergeant differed, by that they beat us by 24. We agreed to split the difference. The day was fine and sunshiny as long as the match lasted. As we were afterwards marching about the town, headed by our band, a violent snow and hail storm came on, which we of course disregarded. We then dined together at the York Hotel.

Thu. Mar. 27- The sergeant superintended the bringing to my premises some of the Artillery stores. With the 174 24lb. Shot we made a triangular pile of nine in the base line and containing 165, we placed it some three feet from the east wall of the Old Chancel.

SIDMOUTH, APR. 1862 1

Tue. Apr. 8- Went into Exeter to consult the Bishop's secretary about our Sidmouth Church Restoration Committee, not yet dissolved. The weather was dry but very cold.

Thu. Apr. 10- The vestry meeting which was granted me for today came off. The statement which I made in respect of the condition of the church was afterwards printed in the Exeter papers. Cuttings from those papers are pasted in the second book of my Ms. Memorandums on the restoration of the church.

Wed. Apr. 23- A vocal and instrumental concert, given by Mr. J.W. Pinney sub.organist of Exeter Cathedral and organist of Sidmouth church, took place this evening at the London Hotel. Several amateur gentlemen assisted. I played french horn, Rev. Mr. Heineken the violoncello, Rev. Mr. Bell of Exeter, the violin, etc.

SIDMOUTH, MAY 1862 1

Thu. May 1- I have some notion of burning my diary. It gives some trouble and I do not see that it is of any use.

SIDMOUTH, JUNE 1862 1

Sat. June 7- Lieut. Col. Crofton came and inspected our Artillery Corps in the Fort Field today. We acquitted ourselves only so-so.

Thu. June 12- Review on Little Haldon, to which we went. Never was anything more miserable, the weather was so wet. I had my breakfast at six, went to the Town Hall at half past and we got off by seven. It was already raining and has been more or less for several days. The Captain put it to the men whether they would go! They decided they would. They went in six open carriages, the officers in two close ones. Many of the men who had no cloaks, got wet through before they got to Exeter. Immense numbers of volunteers assembled at the station. Our company numbering 52, officers, non-commissioned officers and gunners, went to the Den,? Headed by our drum and fife band, 16 nioq.? Here we joined other companies. It was a steady misty rain without prospect of improvement. It would have been very easy by electric telegraph, to have postponed the arrangements. Even the Colonel and Major did not wish to go, but they had received no orders from the General. We therefore marched to the top of the hill, some three miles to our ground, but the arrangements do not seem to have been matured, for we were marched about in unnecessary directions before we took up any position. When we did nothing could be done. The wind blew hard, the rain beat against us, every road was like a water course, every hollow a pool of water and the whole hill a slough of mud. We floundered on, sometimes through red mud, sometimes through black mud, and then washed our boots or legs by plunging through water. The food we took in our haversacks was soaked, but we snatched a scrap now and then. Several battalions of artillery and several of rifles were on the hill, but little or nothing could be done. Not a rifle or a carbine was loaded and few or no movements were gone through. An order was therefore given for the troops to

SIDMOUTH, JUNE 1862 2

Thu. June 12cont.- disperse. Our battalion marched down to Teignmouth and we were the leading company. We got back to Exeter, where I got some hot tea to warm me. I waited till nine o'clock for one of the officers, when, feeling chilly with sitting in my wet clothes, I had some hot coffee with him. The men now began to congregate, when their six carriages and ours started together. We got home about midnight. I had been twelve hours in my wet clothes and was glad to throw them off and turn into bed.

Fri. June 13- I feel very stiff this morning, but have not taken cold

Sat. June 14- Slept nine hours without waking or moving.

Sun. June 15- Ditto

Mon. June 16- Ditto

Tue. June 17- Mr. Chick drove Mr. Heineken and myself over to a place near the Three Horseshoes to see some excavations in a field. It seems that in ploughing the field immediately south, or opposite the Inn, quantities of stones obstructed the plough. These were today partly cleared. They exposed apparently a wall running away north and east, the corner being as if at the south-west angle of a building. As it was three feet thick, perhaps it was part of some chapel or cell once attached to some religious house. We also traced a low ridge running south through the field and also the next. I looks like a continuation of the great work on the north of the Inn. See July 3, 1861

SIDMOUTH, JUNE 1862 3

Thu. June 19- Mr. Heineken and myself drove over to measure Dumpdon Camp, a plan of which appears never to have been published. Started at 10.20 A.M. Went over Honiton Hill, through Honiton, passed over Langford Bridge and then made for the high ground via Shaugh Farm. Arrived in two hours and a half, left the carriage at the base of the cone, mounted and first discussed our dinner. In the accompanying plan, the measurements are given in feet. The plantation at the south end is composed of beech trees. The mound in the middle was thrown up some years ago by the ordnance surveyors, as a point to take angles from and is not a tumulus. This camp is very like Hembury Fort in shape. The hill is said to rise 879 feet above the level of the sea.

DAWLISH, JUNE 1862 4

Tue. June 24- Went to Dawlish to see some relations. Walked from Sidmouth to Budleigh Salterton, via Otterton Park, over the Otter river near Slough Farm, by the wooden bridge half a mile from the sea and then on the embankments across the meadows to the Limekilns and so on into the town. Formerly these meadows formed a large open estuary, into which the tide flowed, so that the whole expanse was under water at high tide, but about fifty years ago the late Lord Rolle had these embankments made to confine the river to its channel and all this land taken in. Some people in Budleigh Salterton maintain that the navigation of the river has been spoilt by the measure. Two or three years ago Mr. Holmes, a magistrate residing there presided at a public meeting when the work was strongly denounced. From Budleigh Salterton I took the omnibus to Exmouth, then had a pleasant row to Starcross and there took the rail to Dawlish, where I found Lieut. Col. Roberton, with his wife and daughter Mary and also Fanny Jones, there on a visit to Mary Roberton, the elder.

Thu. June 26- Drove with some of the party through the grounds and plantations of Luscombe, the estate belonging to Mr. Hoare. The late Mr. Hoare (uncle to the present one) who purchased and made this place, was brother, I believe, of Sir R.C. Hoare, Bart. the antiquary.

Fri. June 27- Went to a picnic at Chudleigh Rock. We drove over Little Haldon, then to Great Haldon, by beggers' Bush and so to Chudleigh. We had our dinner at the Battery on the Rock. After that we went into the Cavern, where I have been many times in past years. Then we went to look at the ruins of Heighley Cottage, which was burnt down a few years ago. How many pleasant weeks and months I have spent in that house. We had tea on the rock and then drove back, taking the road through Ashcombe.

Sat. June 28- Returned to Sidmouth, precisely as I came, only reversing the order of things._______________

SIDMOUTH, JULY 1862 1

Tue. July 22- Went with Mr. Heineken to examine two camps on Stockland Hill. We drove over Honiton Hill, through Honiton, (where we saw the Town Clerk proclaiming the opening of the Fair with a large glove tied on the top of a pole) then over Cotleigh Hill, where we saw some gipsies, intensely foreign in look, with black hair and eyes and olive or brown complexions. On ascending Stockland Hill, we stopped at a public house to enquire about the camps, kept by a man called Lane. Here we were shewn a gold coin found with many others years ago, at a farm called Lower Cleave, a mile and a half S. by W. The coin was of fine gold, about the size of half a sovereign, but only half as thick. I easily made out the word 'EDWARD'. A man went with us to shew us the camps. We ascended the hill, passed the chief road and went down some lanes and down the lane represented at the top of the annexed plan. We discussed our sandwiches and then took the dimensions of the 'Little Castle', as it is called. It is nearly circular, measuring 371 feet one way and 331 the other. A small portion of the vallum on the north side, is all that is perfect. The agger is 8 to 10 feet high and made of earth and stones mixed, but on the inside the agger is made of dry stones piled up, in some places with tolerable regularity. Whether this dry wall all round is ancient work, or more recently made when the land was first cleared and cultivated some 30 years ago, is a question for consideration. This camp is not laid down in the maps. We now proceeded to the 'Great castle' half a mile south or south-west. We sent the carriage round, as the man took us a short cut across the fields. This camp is nearly obliterated. The public road runs through the middle of it, east and west. Both halves are now in wheat and we could not measure them, but we took the road through the camp from one side to the other and it was 810 feet. All round the south side the vallum has been destroyed, only a hedge remaining, but all round the north it is perfect.

SIDMOUTH, JULY 1862 2

Tue. July 22cont.- It is 38 feet on the slope. Late in the autumn the measurements might be taken. This camp is laid down on the Ordnance map. Tradition says that the Saxons were posted here when the Danes entered the Axe, and were so severely beaten at the Battle of Brunenburg.

SIDMOUTH, JULY 1862 3

Tue. July 22cont.- In returning home, we varied the route by going south, then through the village of Wilmington, then by Copleston's Tower and along Farway Hill to Roncombe Gate. We descended the steep hill of Roncombe and so on to Sand. On this hill the iron tire of the off fore wheel came off and we expected the wheel to go to pieces. The driver led the carriage quietly to Sidbury, where we got it fixed on, when we drove home at a slapping pace.

Mon. July 28- Having been summoned in on special jury cases at the assizes in Exeter, I went this morning. The weather being fine I resolved to go by a new route. I got up at 5 A.M. And had breakfast and as Mr. J. Pinney, our Sidmouth organist and assistant organist at Exeter Cathedral, together with Miss Pinney his sister, were going part of the way this morning, I asked them to take breakfast with me. We walked to Budleigh Salterton, where I left them. I took the omnibus to Exmouth and the rail to Exeter and got into court by 10, the appointed hour. Here learnt that the special jurymen would not be wanted till tomorrow, so I went and examined some of the interesting parts of Exeter, walked out and looked at Heavitree Church and churchyard, where I remarked that the Hutchinson tombs in the north-west corner are not well looked after, paid a visit or two, admired the decorated east window of Liverydole Chapel and went back to mine Inn, where I supped and went to bed tired.

Tue. July 29- In nisi prius Court by 9 A.M. Answered to my name and went into the jury box. About 2 P.M. The judge released us for a quarter of an hour to get some grub. The court closed a little before six. Took a walk up St. Sidwell's. Looked at what I believe is Sids' Well.

Wed. July 30- In court all day. Trial about the loss of a ship at the Ferry Point, Teignmouth harbour. Walked out to Alphington Cross, of which I made a sketch. Went over Exeter Cathedral. Tolled curfew.

EXETER, JULY 1862 4

Thu. July 31- In court all day. Trial about the charges of a medical man. No. It was this evening I sketched Alphington Cross.

SIDMOUTH, AUG. 1862 1

Fri. Aug. 1- At all day, and the business ended. Took a walk down the canal.

Sat. Aug. 2- After breakfast I went by rail to Exmouth. There were two young men in uniform of unusual style in the carriage. After some little conversation, I asked them what service they were in? they said American. We then talked of the civil war going on out there so fiercely, when I said-" they wanted their assistance out there just now." One of them shook his head. At Exmouth I got the bus to Budleigh Salterton. From thence I walked home by a new route. I passed over the river by the wooden bridge, went by Slough Farm and then through lanes and fields, till I came out in the lane a mile east of Otterton. Got home about 3 P.M.

Mon. Aug. 11- This evening the Artillery Corps marched to the new Battery under Peak Hill for the first time. It is 300 yards beyond the Limekilns at a very inconvenient place. The two 24s.were placed here whilst I was in Exeter. The Magazine and side arm shed are built of brick tunneled into the cliff. The Captain was absent, so I was in command. The guns were on the new platforms, but not loaded. We returned, came up the wooden steps by the Limekilns and the band awaited us in the road.

Wed. Aug. 13- A combination of circumstances have for some time weighed upon the Artillery Corps. It has never been properly supported by the inhabitants. A meeting of the Officers and non-commissioned officers took place at Salcombe Mount, the Captain's residence, this afternoon. The Captain reviewed the past and the present position of the Corps and then told us he would write to Lieut. Col. Sir Warwick H. Tonkin, our Lieut. Col. At Teignmouth tomorrow and tender his resignation.

Thu. Aug. 14- The Captain resigned.

SIDMOUTH, AUG. 1862 2

Sat. Aug. 16- In the present state of the Corps, in the present state of the funds and in the present state of two or three considerations, it is not likely that I would take the responsibility of the Corps upon my own shoulders. I therefore sent him today, for transmission to the proper authorities. A note tendering my resignation.

Tue. Aug. 19- For the last few weeks I have been busy working up old oak panelling for the north side of the Old Chancel.

Sun. Aug. 24- Dined between Church with Col. Fitzgerald at Mount Edgar. He asked me also for Michaelmas Day.

Wed. Aug. 27- School feast at the Vicarage. The children of the National school had their tea on the lawn and afterwards had their games in the field on the east side of the road near the river. Subsequently they returned to the lawn, where the Vicar gave out prizes for good conduct.

SIDMOUTH, DAWLISH, SEP. 1862 1

Mon. Sept. 1- Shooting match got up by the members of the Sidmouth Artillery Corps. As I sent in my resignation on Saturday the 16th of August, and as my 14 days, after doing so, expired last Saturday, the 30th ultimo, I am legally out of the Corps. However, the men insisted I should shoot with them, so I went as a friend and not as an officer of the corps. We afterwards assembled at the Town Hall, where the Captain and myself took leave of the men and Mr. J.B. Lousada, of Peak House, was nominated as the next Captain.

Fri. Sept. 12- Paid a short visit to Dawlish, to see some of the Joneses from Moreton Pinkney, in Northamptonshire.

Tue. Sept. 16- Took the rail to Teignmouth and called on the Cresswells. Took “Taffy” Jones with me.

Wed. Sept. 17- Went over again and some shot and shell practice by the Volunteers from their two 24s, near the Lighthouse.

Thu. Sept. 18- Took a drive with my cousins up by Dawlish Water.

Sat. Sept. 20- Returned home. The weather is now beautiful. The summers come in the autumn. Twenty years ago they used to come earlier in the year. My route and mode of travelling was the same as on the 4th of January, except that I joined with two gentlemen, who crossed the river with me, in a carriage from Exmouth to Budleigh Salterton.

Tue. Sept. 23- Spent the evening at Mr. & Mrs. Pullins.

Mon. Sept. 29- Michaelmas Day-- beautiful hot weather. Dined with Col. Fitzgerald and his family at Mount Edgar. Splendid goose. In the evening, went to a concert at the London Hotel given by the Madrigal Society. They all acquitted themselves with great credit.

SIDMOUTH, OCT. 1862 1

Fri. Oct. 3- Went to a picnic in Harpford Wood and afterwards went to Harpford and dined with Mr. & Mrs. Gardiner and their family and all our party. Towards the end of this month a wedding.

Mon. Oct. 6- Review and sham fight on Woodbury Hill. Mr. Lousada, as the new Captain of our Corps, got his commission only yesterday. But he took the men and so now I may consider myself free. I had intended to have gone over as a spectator, but it rained so hard I sent the carriage away after it was at the door.

Tue. Oct. 7- Beautiful day. Took a ramble in Harpford Wood to look for ferns, but found nothing new. In the afternoon, after I had returned, four of the Miss Gardiners and two Miss Reeds (nieces of Mrs. Walker) called to see the Old Chancel. I had a wood fire on the hearth lighted there and we all had coffee, much to their amusement in so unusual a place.

Wed. Oct. 8- Beautiful day. The Miss Gardiners came up from Harpford and the Miss Reeds, Mr. Theophilus Jenkins and myself from Sidmouth and we met at “Salter's Cross” above Mutter's Moor. We rambled through the plantation, looked at the cairn, came back, discussed our picnic dinner on the hill and separating up there were we met, each returning to the two

different homes.

Fri. Oct. 10-

SIDMOUTH, OCT. 1862 2

Fri. Oct. 10 CONT.- About the beginning of October a friend and myself determined to try and find “the Iron pits” as they are called, on the Blackdown Hills. Tradition says that the ancients, at some unknown era, used to dig iron ore there. I confess my doubts to this, scarcely comprehending how iron ore could be found in so unlikely a place, or if found at all, how in sufficient quantities. Another opinion supposes they may have been the remains of a British village. I scarcely know what to say to this notion, but where there is mystery, speculation and conjecture will always be alive. However, we determined to find some of them if possible. We had inferred we must look on Blackdown near Hembercomb, Downlands and above Sainthill near Punchy Down. (See Ordnance Map, No.21.) When we were within the area of Hembury Fort with our gig, we met Mr. Venn, the owner of all the land there about, whom I had known before. He said he had passed them 50 or 60 years ago,when he was a young man and directed us to go by the road at the north of Woolford Lodge and at the four cross ways, turn towards Dunkeswell. When near the place we were directed to an enclosure nearly a quarter of a mile north of the 4 cross way, a mile N of Woolford Lodge and 4½ miles from Honiton. The spot is still furze, heath and fern. I got over the gate and had a search, for owing to the state of the ground, nothing was visible from the road. About 100 yards in I found them. We then opened the gate and got in the gig. The excavations have not been made continuously, like one great gravel pit, but the pits or hollows seem to have been made separately, at all events for the most part and this is why some have thought they may once have been the foundations of ancient dwellings. To me however, we have not got the regularity of dwellings either when compared with the undoubted remains of villages on Dartmoor. If they were really iron pits, in or near which smelting may have taken place, we thought it would be well to dig at the bottom of one

SIDMOUTH, OCT. 1862 3

Fri. Oct. 10CONT.- or two. Our tools however, were not sufficiently strong. In one, we dug down nearly two feet, but found nothing but fine mould, which the rains of many years had washed down from the sides. Perhaps it would be necessary to descend three or four feet before finding the original bottom of the pits. Possibly cinders or scoria may be found there. About half a mile or a mile eastwards, near Moorland, we were told that another group of pits existed, but we had not time to go. We returned fourteen miles to Sidmouth, resolving to come again.

Thu. Oct. 16- Walked out to Harpford and gave Miss Gardiner some information on wood engraving and etching on copper, which she is anxious to try. Carried out some specimens for her to examine. Got back as night was closing in.

Tue. Oct. 28- Wedding at Harpford. The Rev. Samuel Walker, Vicar of St. Enoder, in Cornwall, married (to his second wife) the eldest unmarried Miss. Gardiner, the family at present living there. Went out with him and his sister, Mrs. Jenkins. The day turned out wet. The wedding went off very well, I acting as groomsman. I received some official information this morning which was new to me, though I had often acted this part before: but then, the bridegroom was a clergyman, who knew the official performance well. Before the ceremony began, he put his hat on a seat and said to me-"Now, I mustn't be married with my gloves on. I shall take them off and give them to you. Let me have them when the ceremony is over and I will give you the licence, which you hand to the Vicar, just before he begins." All this was done and then he began the service. On returning to the house we had a handsome wedding breakfast. I got back to Sidmouth about 4P.M. But went out again at seven to the ball and supper. We had a very agreeable evening and I was not home till an hour after midnight.

SIDMOUTH, OCT. 1862 4

Fri. Oct. 31- This afternoon, walked in the field, I put up a solitary partridge about five yards north of the north-west buttress of the Old Chancel. It was probably the last of a covey. Strange it should have been so near the town. It flew away over the gardens towards Peak Hill.

SIDMOUTH, NOV. 1862 1

Sat. Nov. 1- Swallows not gone yet. Saw several today.

Wed. Nov. 5- After a great deal of boisterous and rainy weather, today was beautiful. It was calm, bright and cloudless. All the morning engaged in working up old oak for the Old Chancel. In the afternoon, with the help of the steps, was enabled to gather a quantity of pears from the tree on the north side of the house, without bruising them. Laid them on the attic floor for keeping.

Thu. Nov. 6- Today a pile of 165 shot and 9 odd ones, which have been on my premisses (east of the Old Chancel) for many months, were removed to the Battery under Peak Hill. The members of the Institution dined together at the London Hotel.

Fri. Nov. 7- Walked up Peak Hill to Peak Cottage about 2 P.M. Called on Captain Hooper and had an hour at trios, 2 flutes and piano, Mrs. H, himself and me.

Sat. Nov. 8- Amongst the pears from the tree at the north corner of the house in the garden, a lusus naturae has manifested itself. The lower half of the fruit is like the ordinary type, but the pear stops short in the middle and the upper half consists of something between a pear and a branch, growing out of the lower portion and covered with small leaves. I have two of them and both exactly alike.

Mon. Nov. 17- My birthday. Walked to Harpford and gave Miss. Grace Gardiner a few more hints about etching on copper. The subject was bitten in with the acid today and the plate cleaned off.

SIDMOUTH, NOV. 1862 2

Wen. Nov. 26- Finished and put up over the mantel piece in the Old Chancel, the rack for the swords. This pattern:-

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 1

Mon. Dec. 8- Walked out to Harpford to call on Captain Gardiner R.N.

Wed. Dec. 17- Finished reading Thomas Bateman's "Ten Years Diggings in Celtic and Saxon Grave Hills." The localities of which he speaks are Derbyshire, Staffordshire and Yorkshire, but mostly of the first, and consequently apply to the Celtic or other early tribes occupying those districts. Nearly the same kind of discoveries, however, are made in barrows all over the country. Perhaps the earliest internments are those where the bodies were burnt; to which succeeded a period when the bodies were buried without cremation, laid mostly on the left side with the legs drawn up, or sometimes on the right side, with a vase supposed to have contained some offering of food, as also weapons; and with the presence of the Romans, burning appears again. It has been supposed that cairns, or heaps of stones, are older than earth mounds: but stone heaps covered with earth, are very early. An instance occurs where the body was denuded of the flesh and then the bones buried in a cist. The earliest cinerary urns have large mouths. They are formed by hand-

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 2

Wed. Dec. 17CONT.- without the wheel: are thick and large and ornamental with an impressed twisted cord in patterns, or incised zig-zags. The urn containing the calcined bones was sometimes turned with the mouth down. It frequently contained a small vase, from two to four inches high, use not known, but now usually called an incense cup. Sometimes the food vases are large at the top and small below, but this is not always so. With the earliest internments, in which the bodies have been burnt and supposed to be of Celtic or Keltic origin of the stone age, there are found such articles as flint arrow and spear heads; flakes of flint, probably knives; jet; pieces of flint chipped circular, use unknown; blocks of sandstone with hollows on the tops or sides, uses also unknown; bone pins and points for weapons; stag's horns, heads and bones of the ox, horse, deer, hog, hawk. Sometimes calcined remains are not put in an urn, but left in a heap. An instance occurs where a body was burnt whole and the calcined skeleton found entire. We next come to the period when the body was buried without cremation laid commonly in a cist or chamber, mostly on its left side, with the knees drawn up towards the chin and the hands near the face. It may be remarked however, that the flints or pieces of pottery found with these bodies, are commonly burnt, though the body is-

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 3

Wed. Dec. 17CONT.- not; and ashes and charcoal abound. It is supposed that some superstitious rites attended by fire, were performed at the grave before the body was placed in it; and some indications go to prove, that eating and drinking orgies were enacted over the fire in the grave, that flint weapons, food vases and drinking cups were then thrown in, (as the broken pieces shew the effects of the fire after fracture) and that finally the body was sometimes laid on the embers still hot and glowing. When the grave was not thus filled with fire, frequently the body was enveloped in its skin dress with his hair on, or laid on fern,grass or hazel twigs. The flints were often placed under the head or near it and the food vase near the head or shoulders. Small trinkets of bronze are sometimes found with these unburnt contracted bodies, shewing that this metal had been discovered, but was too rare to be in common use. Small bronze daggers or knives, from four to six inches long, are the largest objects of metal met with at this time. As the handles have been destroyed by the fire, the remaining two or three rivets shew how the blade was fastened. A brass or bronze sword, double-edged and two feet six inches long, was found in a peat moss in Lancashire. At this period the metal must have been more abundant. The tooth of a horse, ox, or boar is often found in Celtic graves.

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 4

Wed. Dec. 17CONT.- What is strange, multitudes of the bones of the water-vole or rat abound with the skeletons and almost envelope them. From the book we may infer that they were not buried with the deceased, but that they burrowed in to the bodies and lived and died with them. Quantities of old snail shells are also found. The leg bone or femur is a good indication of the stature of the individual. They range in length from about 16 inches in women and young persons, to 18, 19 or even 20 in men. The skulls are taken as typical of ancient tribes or races. The boat-shaped, being remarkably flat at the sides and long from front to back is commonly met with in Celtic barrows of the stone age. It is distinguished from the Platy-Kephalic, Necklaces of jet or

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 5

Wed. Dec. 17CONT.- Kimmeridge coal beads occur with female remains of this age. The forms of the beads are commonly three-the stud, bored with two slanting holes at the back, meeting in the middle:the cone or bugle, bored through longitudinally and the plate, more or less flat and drilled with two or three holes. The flat pieces, in the example in the book, p.47 are ornamented by punctured dots. It is very strange that headless skeletons are sometimes found, one instance in a woman. Among the implements bronze aurls occur. As female and children's remains have been detected in the same tumulus with the male skeleton, it is conjectured that the family was sacrificed when the head died. The whole or part of the head of the ox, is now and then seen in the grave. Ruddle, red ocker, or war paint found in one cist with the body. Down to the iron age bodies are met with on the side with the legs drawn up. But after that they are mostly laid at length with the limbs stretched out and on the back. Though many iron utensils occur, iron arrow heads are rare. In coming to the Roman and Saxon period, articles of glass appear: also glass beads, porcelain and silver. Saxon vases, made on the wheel, are commonly with globular bodies and smaller necks than those of earlier type. Bone combs and draughts met with. The Saxon swords have often rather short hilts.Brass and iron implements corroding in contact with different substances, retain the impressions of them with great clearness. Thus with a magnifier, the marks of woven fabrics, skins, hair, leather, or wood, may be detected. Most of the spoils of the tumuli mentioned, were sent to the museum at Lomberdale.

Thu. Dec.18- Miss. Moysey, eldest daughter of the Vicar, married to Mr. Frank Bernard today.

Fri. Dec. 19- Went to the Christmas Ball at half past nine this evening at the London Inn Sidmouth. Gentleman's tickets 7/6. Tea, refreshments and supper, difficult to get at, and uncomfortable to take. What is most remarkable in the present-

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 6

Fri. Dec. 19CONT.- day and equally absurd, is the size of the ladies dresses. Their crinoline petticoats extended with steel hoops have attained dimensions quite ridiculous. Because it is the fashion it is tolerated but even the ladies admit the absurdity and wish the Empress of the French (who makes and maintains fashion for the whole world) would be so good as to reduce the size. I remarked one young lady seated on a row of chairs and she and her dress covered three chairs and a half. And as they are as unnecessarily long as they are wide, sweeping the ground as they go, it is most difficult to walk near them or after them without stepping on their skirts or flounces. Very laughable were the jams and collisions that often took place in the rapid, too rapid, twirling of the waltzes. Sometimes one was suddenly enveloped in sundry huge clouds of muslin or silk by the meeting together of several of these spinning couples inadvertently converging and then off they were again in an instant to the four corners of the room. Towards the latter part of the evening it was amusing to see strips of blue, red or white muslin or shreds of silk which had been torn off by collisions lying on the floor or driven about by the whirlwind of these fleet revolvers. Quadrilles, Lancers and Polkas were the other dances. I got home at a quarter to four.

Mon. Dec. 22- Read some interesting articles on ancient human skulls in the 1861 volume of the Natural History Review, suggested by my recent reading of Bateman's book. It is here shewn that there is strong evidence to prove that the earliest of the human race coexisted with hyena, rhinoceros, elephant and bear, the bones of which are found in caverns among the diluvium of the late geological period, being animals among the extinct genera. Drawings are given in the illustrative plates by which we see that the skulls differ very little from those of the gorilla and the chimpanzee. There is no fixing a date to the ancient races to which these belonged and their evidence-

SIDMOUTH, DEC. 1862 7

Mon. Dec. 22CONT.- seems to throw us entirely out in respect of our chronology of the duration of the human race on the earth, or the era to be assigned to Adam. But the most humiliating point is, that it is hard to say where the monkey ends and man begins. These ancient races must have been as brutal, debased and as savage as the brute beasts themselves.

Thu. Dec. 25- Christmas Day. Mild and damp. Some broad beans which I sowed in the garden a month ago, are all up and looking very well. If they survive the cold winds of the winter and spring, they will make an early crop. This plan is generally followed by the gardeners here, but it only succeeds sometimes.

Dined with Mrs. Walker, late of Lime Park (who sold it to Mr. Wyndham) and now of Sid House in Salcombe Parish.

Sun. Dec. 28- Early dinner with Mr. and Mrs. Vane.

Wed. Dec. 31- Spent the evening with Mr. and Mrs. Melhuish of Greenmount. They gave me two antique clay bottles from Guayaquil in Peru.

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